African Union : History, Objectives & Controlling Bodies | UPSC Notes

Print Friendly, PDF & Email
African Union : History, Objectives & Controlling Bodies | UPSC Notes

• The African Union (AU) is a group of 55 African countries that work together as a single group.

• The African Union (AU) was called for in the Sirte Declaration, which was signed on September 9, 1999, in Sirte, Libya.

• The group was started on May 26, 2001, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and it started working on July 9, 2002, in Durban, South Africa.

The AU was meant to replace the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), which was set up by 32 countries on May 25, 1963, in Addis Ababa. The OAU was dissolved on July 9, 2002. The AU’s most important decisions are made by the Assembly of the African Union, which is a meeting of the heads of state and government of its member states that happens every six months.

• The African Union Commission, which is in charge of running the AU, is based in Addis Ababa.

• Lagos, Nigeria, is the biggest city in the AU, while Cairo, Egypt, has the most people living in one area.

The African Union has more than 1.3 billion people and covers an area of about 29 million km2 (11 million sq mi), which includes well-known places like the Sahara and the Nile. Arabic, English, French, Portuguese, Spanish, and Kiswahili are the main languages used for business.

• The African Union has formal groups like the Pan-African Parliament and the Peace and Security Council.

Four summits that led to the formation African Union were:

• The African Union was set up at the Sirte Extraordinary Session in 1999.

ALSO READ  Muktendra Kumar IRS Biography, UPSC Marksheet, Age, Rank, Optional Subject, Notes

• The Constitutive Act of the Union was passed at the Lome Summit in 2000.

• At the Lusaka Summit in 2001, a plan was made for how the AU would work.

• The first meeting of the African Union’s Heads of State was held at the Durban Summit in 2002.

Visions of the African Union (AU):

• The Organisation of African Unity (OAU) was relaunched as the African Union to realise Africa’s promise to fight against colonisation, with a big focus on more cooperation and integration between African states for economic growth.

• The AU is led by its own people and is guided by its goal of a peaceful, prosperous, and integrated Africa that is a strong force in the world economy.

Objectives of the African Union (AU)

The Constitutive Act of the African Union and the Protocol on Amendments to the Constitutive Act of the African Union set out the goals of the AU.

1. Getting the African countries and people to be more united and work together.

2. Protecting the sovereignty, independence, and dignity of each of the 55 Member States.

3. Speeding up the political and economic stability of the whole African region.

4. Support and promote common African positions on problems that are important to the continent and its people.

5. Encouraging foreign cooperation and working for peace, security, and stability on the continent

6. Getting people involved in running the continent and making sure democratic ideals and institutions are in place

7. Creating and promoting common policies for trade, military, and foreign relations, which will make it stronger in negotiations.

ALSO READ  Top 11 Best IAS Coaching in Guwahati | UPSC 2023

8. Invite and support the African Diaspora, which is a big part of our continent, to take part fully in building the African Union.

9. Follow the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights and protect people’s rights.

10. To make sure that the continent’s social, economic, and cultural growth is sustainable.

11. Progress in science and technology will help the area grow and develop.

Structure of the African Union:

• The main decision-making bodies of the AU are the Assembly of Heads of State and Government, the Executive Council, and the Permanent Representatives Committee (PRC).

The Peace and Security Council and the African Union Commission.

The Pan-African Parliament and the Economic, Social, and Cultural Council (ECOSOCC) are two parts of the AU structure that make it easier for African people and civil society to take part.

• The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (ACHPR), the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (AfCHPR), the AU Commission on International Law (AUCIL), the AU Advisory Board on Corruption (AUABC), and the African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child deal with judicial and legal matters as well as human rights issues.

• The AU is also working to set up continental financial institutions (The Africa Report).

• The African Peer Review Mechanism and the Regional Economic Communities (RECs) are also important parts of the African Union’s organisation.