Chapter 7. International Relations Notes for UPSC Mains

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Nepal

India Nepal

  • India- Nepal Friendship treaty in 1950
    • In the wake of Chinese capture of Tibet in 1949
    • Joint manning of Nepal Tibet border
    • Nepal would import arms, ammunitions only with India’s consent
    • Indian millitary mission in Nepal
  • About 75 lakh Nepali work and live in India
    • Nepali can even become an army chief in India
  • Roti Beti ka Rishta
  • 1750 km of border
  • River
    • 60% of Ganga basin river water from China
  • Economic
    • Pancheshwar multi purpose project proposed
      • On Makhali river
      • 6k MW – 2nd largest power project in the world
      • India providing 1500 crore
      • Potential – 60k MW
      • Benefits
        • Power sharing to India
        • Reduction of floods in Terai region of UP
  • Challenge
    • Nepali have a fear of ASSIMILATION within India
    • Very young democracy
      • Would take time to settle
      • Constitutional issues
      • Anything we do does become a political issue
    • Communist government in Nepal
      • Led by K P Oli
      • Historically closer to China
      • Although, Oli had historically been hiclose to India, so we never know
    • EQUI DISTANT Policy
      • NAM versio wrt India and Chian
    • Anti- India over Treaty of 1950
    • Madhesi problem
    • Terrorists using Nepal route
      • Kandhar plane refuelled in 1999
      • Yakub Menon
    • Border issues over a few thousand hectares over a region called Susta, near UP border
    • Nepal sees itself as a ,” yam between 2 boulders ” . should instead have been the bridge between India China
    • China Nepal
      • 1st ever Millitary Deal
      • 1st ever Millitary Exercise
      • Deal to use Chinese ports for Nepal trade
      • Train service between Tibet Nepal started
      • K P Olli govt Chinese tilt
      • Road to Mt Everest
      • Oil during blockade
    • Rejected India’s Open Sky Policy 0 that would have unrestricted plane connections
  • Growth
    • Bus service between Kanchanpur, Nepal to New Delhi to be resumed after 27 years
    • Transmission line via Muzaffarpur
    • BBIN MVA y
    • Vishakhapatnam as a transit hub for export
    • 250 million$ grant after earthquake
    • India 1st foreign country visited by premier K P Oli
  • Importance
    • Terrorism
    • India – South Asian Leadership
    • Buffer State
    • Economic and Cultural Linkages
    • Development of states like Bihar and UP
    • Water related issues
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Internal
 

  • Nepal’s lawmakers began work on a new national constitution in 2008 following a decade-long Maoist insurgency that left an estimated 16,000 people dead and brought down the monarchy.
  • But the political parties were unable to reach agreement and the resulting uncertainty left Nepal in a state of political limbo and instability
  • Problem of reconstruction
    • Only 1% of the damaged buildings rebuilt by an estimate
  • Power conflict between Nepali Congress, K P Oli’s Comunist Party and Maoists
     

New Constitution:

  • executive Prime Minister and ceremonial President.
    • The Westminster model
  • The agreement includes a commitment to hold the country’s first local elections since 1997.
  • Secularism
    • Classifies Nepal as secular country
    • Not Hindu nation
  • Other similar features as India like Single Citizenship, preamble, Fundamental Right, duties, Directive principle, CAG, EC
  • Violence
    • 7 federal units seemingly break up the Madhesis
      • Madhesis are the local people, from Indian background
        • “Roti, Beti ka rishta” with India
        • Questions to Nepal

Between 6-8 nepali live and work in India

Most of them are the hill people

Why single out the Madhesis as having Indian connection

In fact Madhesis have been in Nepal ever since the British times, and are therefore ‘original ‘ inhabitants just like the hill people

  • Madhesis are like the lower castes; high population but very limited power
  • They live in the plains; most agriculture, industry concentrated in theses regions
  • Even earlier (till 90s), Madhesis were not allowed to enter the inner regions ; had to take passports to go to Kathmandu
  • Hegemony of communities like Bahun & Chhetri

BHUTAN

  • Indo-Bhutan Friendship Treaty of 1949
    • Bhutan let India guide its Foregin Policy and Defence Policy
    • However, these clauses have beenremoved in the renewed treaty of 2007
  • Importance to India
    • Strategic
      • Buffer State
      • Indian “ally” India has IMTRAT stationed in Bhutan
        • India Military Training Team
        • Doklam Crisis
      • Has remained out of the Chinese Coercion – OBOR
      • Siliguri Corridor security
    • Terrorism
      • Cooperated in flushing out ULFA and Bodo millitants from its teritory
    • Economic
      • India – Bhutan FTA
      • India helped set up 3 major hydroelectric plants in Chukha, Kurichhu & Tala
      • The sale of electricity to India helps finance Bhutan’s budgets
      • Looking to expand railway connectivity to Bhutan
      • Indian LPG
  • Political
    • MVA BBIN rejected
      • Environment, culture
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Myanmar

  • Refugee
    • Rohingya crisis
      • Rakhine state , descendants of Arab traders who are believed to have moved in 15yh century
      • About ,10 lakh Rohingyas
      • 3 lakh already exit to ban
      • Involvement of Myanmar armed forces
      • Stateless people
        • no citizenship, voting rights
        • Were not even counted in the 2014 census
      • UN
        • Ethnic cleansing
      • Have been described as among the least wanted in the world
      • Myanmar POV
        • Launched terror strikes against the Myanmar State and Police
        • Linkage to Terrorism
      • Bangladesh
        • Thengar char island + flooded – human rights issue
    • India
      • 40k expected in India as well
        • Could rise more
      • India recently inked a document to develop Rakhine state
      • Home minister has called for deporting
      • India not a signatory of 1951 UN refugee convention or 1967 refugee protocol
      • Citizenship amendment Bill
      • India should at least sign Bali Declaration – that unequivocally condemns the action of Myanmar govt in Rakhine state
    • Conclusion
      • As a Nobel Peace Prize winner, it is the duty of Aung San Suu Kyi, to maintain peace and harmony in the region

India Mynamar

  • History
    • A large no of Indian troop participated in the Ango – Burma wars
      • We have come full circle
    • Was a province of British India till 1937 after which a separate colony
    • A large presence of Indians even after in the Burmese civil services, as traders, etc
    • So much so, that anti- India resentment was high
    • In 1962, a coup took place
      • U Nu the leader took refuge in India
      • In reply, property of Indians were taken over
      • Most of the remaining Indians remain stateless even today
    • Ties with the Millitary Junta govt resumed only in 1992
  • Aung San Suu Ki
    • Mother was the ambassador to India
    • Herself studied in JNU
    • Is pro- Indian
    • India too has supported her
  • Economic
    • India largest provider of Grant in Aid to Myanmar
    • Pulses
      • Because of its huge agricultural especially pulses export
    • Oil
      • India investing in Sagar Samridhi, a deep sea oil exploration project
      • Mynamr Pipeline
  • Also provide access to NE
    • Kaladan multi mode transport corridor project & Trilateral Highway
    • Kaladan is a sea link between Kolkata and Sittwee port in Mnamar
  • Access to SE Asia
    • Roads
      • India- Myanmar friendship road
      • Trilateral highway – Thailand
      • Proposed India Singapore road
    • Built sittwe port
  • Political
    • Mekong Ganga Cooperation
    • BIMSTEC
    • SASEC
  • Terror
    • Has a ceasefire agreement with the NSCM ( K)
    • Constructing Border walls on its side of the border
    • Nagalim demand includes Myanmar portion
    • Hot Pursuit of Indian Army
  • Cultural
    • Indian NRIs
    • Historical Linkage – Pre 1935
    • Modi visited Pagoda, Bahadur Shah Zafar tomb
  • China factor
    • Buffer State
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Issues

  • China
    • Has de facto control over Kachin state which borders Arunachal
      • Could be a reason of insurgent activities in the region
    • Myitsone dam
    • Kyakyu Port – String of Pearls
  • Building Border wall
    • Difficluty in conducting a fresh Hot Pursuit
  • Ceasefire with NSCM (K)
  • Rohingya Issue
    • India recently inked a document to develop Rakhine state

Constitutional change

Why military gave power

  • Junta gov’t real realised that it couldn’t rule with iron hand forever
  • Opposition continued to be resolute
  • Increasing support for Su Ki
  • Sectarian crises
  • Crimes against Rohingya Muslims