Table of Contents
Why In The News?
- Recent study in the Singhbhum craton in eastern India has found 3.5 billion-year-old volcanic and sedimentary rocks that are very well preserved.
- Between the Chhota Nagpur plateau and the Eastern Ghats, the Singhbhum craton stretches across Jharkhand and Odisha. These results shed light on India’s geological past and show how it is similar to parts of South Africa and Australia.
What did researchers find out?
The focus of the study was on volcanic and sedimentary rocks that formed in the Daitari greenstone belt in the Singhbhum Craton in east India about 3.5 billion years ago.
o These rocks have been kept in great shape and give us a look into Earth’s past.
Geological Makeup of Greenstones: Researchers found that the greenstones in South Africa’s Barberton and Nondweni areas, as well as those in Australia’s Pilbara Craton, are similar to those in the Daitari greenstone belt. This suggests that these areas have a similar geological history.
Submarine volcano Activity:
The study showed that there were a lot of underwater volcano eruptions between 3.5 and 3.3 billion years ago.
o Pillow-shaped lava forms were left by these eruptions in the greenstone rocks of the Singhbhum, Kaapvaal, and Pilbara cratons.
Pillow lava is made when hot, molten basaltic magma slowly exploded underwater and quickly hardened into roughly round or spherical shapes.
Sub-Marine Sedimentary Rocks:
o After silicic volcanism, sub-marine turbidity current deposits formed as the volcanic vents sank.
o Using accurate detrital U-Pb zircon data, these sedimentary rocks were dated to about 3.5 billion years ago. They tell us a lot about what life was like under the sea.
- Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology is used to study sediments, such as where they came from, how they fit together, and how old the oldest deposits are. It is also used to study paleogeography and the growth of the continental crust.
What Does It Mean to Find Out Something?
Understanding Ancient Environments:
Scientists can learn about early places where people could have lived on Earth by looking at both volcanic and sedimentary rocks that make up ancient greenstones. These rocks are like time capsules because they show how the Earth has changed over time.
These results help us learn more about how volcanoes work and how the geology of old countries has changed over time.
The bedrock of India, South Africa, and Australia is similar, which suggests that these areas may have gone through similar geological changes 3.5 billion years ago.
Paleogeographic Positioning: More research could help us learn more about how these ancient continents were positioned in the past and add to ideas about plate tectonics.