Data and Facts for UPSC Mains GS 3

Print Friendly, PDF & Email
data and facts for upsc mains
Issue Data Government interventions
Agriculture ○46% of population directly employed


○Share in GDP : 18%

○65% in rainfed

Agro Production distribution

○Rice : 130MT

○Wheat : 110 MT

○Coarse cereals : 50MT

○Pulses : 25 MT

○Total : 320 MT

Farm loan waivers

○Cummulative loan waived in last decade is Rs.

4.7 lakh crores

Farm Subsidies


•2.5% of GDP is spent on subsidies (fertiliser, credit, crop insurance, price mechanism)

•Kelkar committee has recommended phased elimination of subsidies

Agro logistics

•Kissan rail



•PM Krishi sinchayi yojna

•Per drop more crop

•Soil health card

•Seed village programme

Farm Subsidies

○2.5% of GDP is spent on subsidies (fertiliser, credit, crop insurance, price mechanism)


○Swaminathan committee

○Ashok Dalwai committee

○Shanta Kumar committee

○Ashok gulati committee

Role of R&D in agriculture

○Every rupee spent on agricultural research and development, yields much better returns (11.2), compared to returns on every rupee spent on fertiliser subsidy (0.88), power subsidy (0.79), education (0.97) or on roads


•Seed village programme

•Nutrition based subsidy programe


•PM Krishi sinchayi yojna

•Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY)

•National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)#


•Minimum support prices

•Agri marketing fund

•APMC laws

•Warehousing certificates

•FPO promotion

•Organic promotion : National plan for organic production (NPOP)



•Pradhan Mantri Annadata Aay Sanrakshan Abhiyan (PM-AASHA)


•Micro irrigation fund

Extension services

•PM Fasal bima yojna

•Kisan credit card

    Social development


•PM Kissan

•PM Kisan mandhan yojna

Agri technology

•Agri stack

Steps to promote allied activities

•Integrated farming system : Focus on horticulture, livestock and beekeeping

•RKVY-RAFTAAR : Agro Entrepreneurship

•National agro forestry policy

•Bamboo mission

•Livestock promotion


•Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH)

Electric vehicle ○Expected to reach $7 bn by 2025 ○FAME India scheme ( Rs. 10,000 crores)


○E-Amrit portal one stop destination for all information on Evs

○Draft battery swap policy by NITI

○PLI scheme for Advanced chemical cell battery storage

Technology in ○Agri tech projected to grow to $30bn by ○Kissan Drones
Agriculture 2025 ○Mkissan app


○Soil health card scheme

○Computerised sprinkler irrigation

○Satellite for weather prediction

○AI-Sowing app

○Agri stack

○Krishi vigyan kendras

Block chain •National strategy on blockchain


•Presidio principles by WEF

Steps by government


in Agriculture in last 2 years

Steps by government in Agriculture in last 2 years


•Extension of operation green to include 22 perishable products

•SVAMITVA scheme

•1000 more mandis integrated with E-NAM

•Agro Infrastructure fund

•2.37 lakh crore DBT to farmers

•Chemical free natural farming

•Kissan Drones

•Declaring millets as International year of millets 2023

•NMEO-OP to reduce import dependency on vegetable oil

•Ken-Betwa link to enhance area under cultivation

•Duty on fisheries inputs is reduced



mission (Oil

NMEO-OP mission (Oil Palm) •Reduce domestic oil prices  
Palm) •Increase production by 3 times to 11 MT


•Area under cultivation to 10 lakh HA (2026) and

16 Lakh HA (2030)

•Viability Formula is a Minimum Support Pricetype mechanism and the government will fix this at 14.3% of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) price.

•Starting with NE states and A&N islands

•Provision of Rs 5 crore of 5 mt/hr (million tonne per hectare) with pro-rata increase for higher capacity will be given

•Goal to achieve self-efficiency in vegetable oil

Public distribution system (PDS) Public distribution system (PDS)


•5 lakh fair price shops around the nation

•75% rural and 50% urban population covered under NFSA, 2013

•90 crore families under TPDS

Nuclear power •India’s installed nuclear power capacity is 6,780 MW and the country aims to produce 40,000 MW of nuclear power by 2030  
Renewable energy Total capacity 160 GW


Incrased by 4 times in last 8 years

Target of 500 GW by 2030

•Wind power: 40.08 GW

•Solar Power: 49.34 GW

•BioPower: 10.61 GW

•Small Hydro Power: 4.83 GW

•Large Hydro: 46.51 GW


•Reduce domestic oil prices

Cropping patterns Issues


•Green Revolution, which focused on cereals alone


•Cultivation of water intensive crops despite low groundwater levels

•Use of excess quantities of fertilizers

•Lack of commercial farming

•Poor choice as Millets, pulses are not chosen (Lack of diversity)

Industry and Manufacturin g ○16% contribution of manufacturing sector to GDP, almost stagnant since 1991


○Total share 26% in GVA

○Industry growth rate : 11.6% (2021-22)

Schemes for Industry


•Make in India

•Special economic zones

•Progress liberalization of Industrial policy

•Ease FDI norms

•PM Gati shakti national master plan

•PLI Scheme



•Labour codes

•Competition act (2002)

•MSME act 2006

Services Services


•GVA share : 54% of GDP

•Growth rate : 8.2% (2021-22)


Changes in



Advancement of the Budget cycle:

Advanced to

the 1st day of February

Merger of Plan and Non

Plan expenditures:

Merger of the Rail Budget with the General


Bibek Debroy committee



Inequality (Oxfam)

Top 10% holds 73% of the wealth

It takes 941 years for a daily wage earner to

earn 1 year salary of top paid executives

Billionaires has same wealth as 50% of



India amongst highest number of billionaires




According to Oxfam report, 2021 , 84% Indian

households had a decline in Income, while 100

richest people more than doubled their income




is declared as the International Year of

millets by the UN

Millets are short duration crops (60



Crop rotation is possible leading to regular farmer


low carbon

footprint and water footprint.


require 3.5 times less water than paddy

combating lifestyle diseases

like diabetes,

cardiovascular problems as millets are gluten free

and have a

low glycemic index (GI)

Digital India  
Mining ○Only 10% of the obvious geological potential (OGP) area of India has been explored


○In terms of value, 87% of the total production comes from 10 states

○2.1% of GDP

○Mines and minerals (Development and regulation) act, 1957


○PM Khanij Kshetra Kalyan yojna

○National mineral policy, 2019

○District mineral foundation

Coal oil and gas 50% Energy mix by coal


○28% from oil

○87% of crude oil was imported in FY 20



•PM Ujjawala yojna

•PM Ji-Van

•National Gas grid

•100% FDI allowed in various segments of oil and gas sector

Logistics ○Costs 13% of GDP


○Target of 7-9% of GDP

○Logistics performace Index : 35th rank out of 160 countries

Gujarat ranked first for 3rd consecutive year

Agro logistics schemes


•Kissan Rail : Cold supply chain to transport perishable goods

•Krishi Udaan : Delivery of Agro goods to national and international locations


•PM Gram sadak yojna

•PM Gati shakti

    •Bharat mala



•Parvat mala

•Inland waterways

Inflation •Crossing 6% mark consistently for many months •April-June : 7% each month Reasons


•Ukraine russia crisis

•Supply chain disruption

•Slow post pandemic recovery

•Pent up demand

•Oil price rise volatility

•Food inflation due to oil palm

•Increase in freight costs

•Global semi conductors chips shortages

Farm mechanisatio n ○India (40%), Brazil (75%), USA (95%) ○PM Krishi sampada yojna
Roads Roadways


•59% of freight through road transport

•2nd largest road network in the world

•Highway construction increased by 17% CAGR in FY16-21

•40% total traffic is carried by National highways

Road safety

•400 fatalities per day

•World bank report : With only 1% vehicles India

Schemes for road transport


•PM Gati shakti


•PM Gram sadak yojna

•Multi-modal logistics parks

•E-way bill in GST

•BH Vehicles (Bharat series)

•Vehicle scrappage policies

•35 km/day highway building

  account for 11% of world accidents Schemes for road safety


•Motor vehicles (Amendment) act, 2019

•National road safety policy

•National road safety board

•Good samaritan rules

•Scheme on black spots : Rs. 14,000 crore scheme with world bank to reduce black spots on roads

Railways Railways


•4th largest rail network in the world

•Daily passenger count of 24 million

•Bibek debroy committee on Railways reforms

National Rail Plan (NRP) 2030.

•Increase the Railway’s modal share to 45% in freight traffic by 2024 with an

•Increase of freight train’s average speed to


•100% electrification (Green Energy) and multitracking of congested routes.

•Digitise and automate Indian Railway operations through accelerating the adoption of

Centralized Traffic Control (CTC) and Traffic

Management Systems (TMS)

•Usher in an era of energy-efficient, costeffective and green freight transport



•PM Gati shakti


•Vande bharat trains

•Privatisation in IRCTC

•National rail plan

•100% electrification target by 2024

•Integration in PM Gati shakti

•National monetisation pipeline

  •Achieve sustained involvement of the Private Sector  
Ports,Shippin g, water ways • 12 Major ports and 189 minor ports ○Jal marg vikas project




Power sector Power sector


•3rd largest producer and 2nd largest consumer of electricity globally

•Installed capacity of 400 GW (170 GW Renewable)

Coal and Oil

•50% of all energy of India comes from Coal

•28% of India overall energy from Oil

•5 million barrels of oil consumed per day, out of which 90% is imported



•Gram jyoti yojna

•Sovereign green bonds

•PLI scheme

•Ujjwal discom assurance yojna (UDAY)

•National smart grid mission

•Pradhan mantri Sahaj bijli har ghar yojna “


•National LED programme

•Perform achieve and Trade (PAT) scheme

MSMEs MSME sector


•29% of Indian GDP

•45% exports contribution

•Employement to 11 crore people in 6.3 crore entreprises

○Interest subvention scheme


○Zero defect zero effect scheme

○PM Employement generation scheme

○PSL norms

•CHAMPIONS portal : Use AI/ML for MSMEs

•SFURTI Scheme : Improvement of traditional industries

○New MSME definition to reduce DWARFING

○Loan under 59minutes

○Make in India initiative

    ○ECLGS during pandemic
State finances ○Fiscal deficit : 4.1% of GDP (2020-21)


○31% debt to GDP (March 2021) while the target is 20% of GDP

○Own tax revenue (45% of budget) is the largest revenue source

15th FC


Fiscal roadmap: The Commission suggested that the Centre bring down fiscal deficit to 4% of GDP by 2025-26. For States, it recommended the fiscal deficit limit (as a % of GSDP) of: (i) 4% in 2021-22, (ii) 3.5% in 2022-23, and (iii) 3% during 2023-26

Unemployem ent Unemployement rate


•June 2022 : 7.8%

•More than 6% since last one year

Gig economy

•Size is expected to cross $500 bn by 2025




Finance commission


•Article 280 ; NK Singh

New things in TOR

•Reorganisation of state of J&K

•Possibility of setting up non-lapsable funds for

Indian defence needs


•Vertical devolution : 42% to 41% (Due to J&K)

•Sector specific grants

•State specific grants

•Local body grants : 4.36 lakh crores

•Disaster risk management

•Defence and internal security

ALSO READ  Beggary law in India – An analysis | UPSC Notes
  •Revenue deficit grants : 2.95 lakh crores


•Fiscal roadmap: The Commission suggested that the Centre bring down fiscal deficit to 4% of GDP by 2025-26. For States, it recommended the fiscal deficit limit (as a % of GSDP) of: (i) 4% in 2021-22, (ii) 3.5% in 2022-23, and (iii) 3% during 2023-26

•Health: States should increase spending on health to more than 8% of their budget by 2022 with two-thirds of the total health expenditure on primary healthcare

•Third-party evaluation of all CSS (CentrallySponsored schemes) should be completed within a stipulated time frame

•Finance commission work as a wheel of Fiscal federalism


•Using Census 2011 data,

•Biased towards the Centre and for

•Providing incentive-based devolution to local bodies.

Public private partnership Hybrid annuity model (HAM) : based on risk sharing where government contributes 40% of the project cost and 60% of cost is borne by the developer. Then rest 60% paid in installements yearly to the builder  
FPIs Food processing sector Scheme
  •1.69% of total GVA of country


•Sunrise sector with 11% CAGR Why do we need FPIs?

•High wastages : 15%-40% (ES-2017)

•Level of processing (7%) in India as compared to developed countries (60-80%)

•PM Kisan sampada yojna


•Operation green scope from TOP to 22 perishables

•One district one product

•PLI Scheme for FPIs

•100% FDI allowed

•Priority sector lending scheme

•PM Formalisation of micro food processing entreprises (PM-FME)

Banking Banking •NPA :


○6.9% Gross NPA ratio ;

○2.2% Net NPA ratio

•9.2% credit growth of Schedule commercial banks

•14.7 bank branches per 1,00,000 adults in 2020, higher than China, Germany and South Africa

New bad bank structure


•NARCL : Acquire stress assets worth Rs. 2 lakh crores ; Majorly public sector owned

•IDRCL : Try to sell the stressed assets ; Majorly private sector owned

Schemes for banking

•Prompt corrective action (PCA) framework

•Enhanced access and service excellence (EASE) •Expansion of bank licensing framework

•Increase in deposit insurance to Rs 5 lakh with interim payments

•Project Shashakt

Schemes to reduce NPA

•4R : Recognition, recapitalisation, Resolution, Reform


•Bank board bureau

    •NARCL and IDSL


•Deposit insurance to Rs. 5 lakh

GN Bajpai committee recommendations for

Insolvency and bankruptcy

PJ Nayak committee for structural reforms in


Narshimham committee 1 and 2 suggestions

Textiles ○Employ 4.5 crore people next to Agriculture


○2.3% of GDP, 7% of industry output and 12% of export earnings

○National Technical Textiles Mission


○Production Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme For Textiles


○Scheme for Capacity Building in Textile Sector (SAMARTH)

12th ministerial


conference of


○TRIPS waiver for COVID vaccines to boost export and improve vaccine equity, accessibility & affordability.



Under Article 3, governments agree not to provide subsidies to fishing vessels and operators that have been found to engage in illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing

Demand of developing countries accepted for extension of fishing limits to 200 nautical miles.

Under Article 4, governments agree not to subsidize the fishing of fish stocks that are in

Impact India’s fisheries sector:


•Principle of Special and Differential Treatment has been accepted for only 2 years

•Fails to recognize that fishing is related to livelihood and food security in developing countries and LDCs, whereas, in developed countries, it is an industrial-scale commercial activity.

•Loopholes allow concessions to rich countries. E.g., need not put any discipline if prove that they are maintaining stocks at biologically sustainable levels.

•Blocs like EU and advanced countries like

Norway have built monitoring and measuring

  an overfished condition


Under Article 5, WTO members agree not to provide subsidies to fishing and fishing related activities on the high seas

○Declaration on Emergency Response to Food Insecurity: making food available in developing countries, increasing productivity and production. ○Decision to exempt World Food Programme’s (WFP) food purchases from export prohibitions, however domestic food security gets priority.

○E- commerce duties: Intensify discussions on the moratorium including on its scope, definition and impact.

○Reform: Make WTO more efficient and revive dispute settlement body

systems through decades of systemic subsidies, which provide higher estimate of natural fishstock.


•Directly links trade with sustainable development. This can act as a template to

introduce environmental conditions in future trade agreements under WTO

Public distribution system TPDS


•50% of urban population

•75% of rural population


•Bhavantar bhugtan yojna

•One nation one ration card



Shanta kumar committee recommendations


•Stop procurement from grain surplus states

(HR, PB ) and more focus on eastern states

•Better price support for pulses and oilseeds

•Cash transfer in PDS should be gradually introduced (Price deficiency payment)

•Outsource grain storage function to central warehouse corporation

•Amend NFSA,2013 : Reduce subsidised population from 67% to 40%

•Push for national warehousing through PPP

MSP crops + FRP for sugarcane


Most procurement of Wheat and rice only

NITI aayog recommendations


•Price deficiency payment system ( KALIA, PM-

Norway have built monitoring and measuring



•Procurement centre should be in village itself)

Buffer Stock •As on 1st April, 2022, the Central pool had approximately 74 million tonnes (mt) of food grains which is 300% of the strategic and operational reserve norm of 21.04 mt.


•Of this, 19 mt of wheat is over 2.5 times, and 55 mt of rice is nearly 4 times of the required stock

•20%-40% wastages rate in Buffer stock
Horticulture ○1/3 of Agro GDP


○Outstrip total agriculture production consistently

○MIDH : Mission for integrated development of Horticulture


○Extending GI tags

○Promoting FPOs

Fisheries ○Governmenet has set a target of Rs. 1 lakh crores exports from fisheries sector by



○Exports in 2019-20 : 47,000 crores

○India is 2nd largest Aqua culture nation globally

○Contributed 1.2% to total GDP

○Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana


○Blue Revolution: Integrated Development and Management of Fisheries

○Neel Kranti mission

○WTO MC12 agreement




○Contribution : 4.35% of total GDP (30% of Agro GDP)


○8% CAGR in 2014-15 to 2019-20

○Gokul mission


○Cooperatives (Article 19, 43B)

○Dairy Sahakar Scheme

○Artificial Insemination Programme

○National Animal Disease Control Programme

○Ayushman Sahakar Scheme

Land distribution According to FAO, 5% Land-redistribution can lead to 30% reduction in poverty Land reforms schemes


•Digital land record modernizatiion scheme

  Land reforms


•Average land size : 1.08 HA

•84% have less than 2HA of land

•In India, 73% rural women are engaged in agriculture, but only 12% are the owners of land holdings



•Model land leasing act, 2016

Digitisation of Land records

•Bhoomi Project (Karnataka), 2000

•Digital India Land Records Modernization programme (DILRMP):

•Unique Land Parcel Identification Number

•Integrated Land Management Information System (ILMIS):

International trade Trade


•Exports (Goods): $420bn (FY 22)

•Imports (Goods) : $610bn (FY22) ; Oil imports : $160bn

•1.7% was India’s share in world exports up from 0.6% in 1991 but way lower than China at 13% of global exports

•Indian exports are 18% of its GDP

Target : India aims to reach $500 billion exports in next two years and $1 trillion exports by 2027-28.

Schemes to improve exports


•PLI scheme in 14 sectors

•FTA signed with UAE and Australia

•Remission of duties and taxes on imported products (RoDTeP)

•Service exports from India scheme

•Export preparedness index

•Ease of doing business

•SAGARMALA project

Financial Inclusion ○45 crore Jan Dhan accounts


○13 crore enrolment in PM Jeevan jyoti beema yojna

○14.7 bank branches per 1,00,000 adults in

2020, higher than China, Germany and South Africa

Financial inclusion


•Jan dhan Yojna

•Mudra Yojna

•Atal Pension Yojna

•Suraksha Beema Yojna

•UPI, RuPay cards

•Digital land record modernizatiion scheme

    •Shram yogi mandhan


•Aadhar and DBT schemes

•National Pension System (NPS)

•Sovereign Gold Bond (SGB) Scheme

Inclusive growth •Employement generation


•Redistribution of income and wealth

•Intergenerational eqaultiy

Election freebies ○15th finance commission raised concern over growing political election freebies


○Telangana has committed 35% of revenue receipts, almost 63% of state’s own tax revenue, to finance populist schemes which are centered around freebies.

E-RUPI •e-RUPI is a onetime contactless, cashless voucherbased mode of payment,


•Redeemable at designated centers without the need for any credit/debit card, digital payments app, or internet banking access,

•thus eliminating any physical interface

Cryptocurren cy ○Estimated market size : 20 mn crypto investors with market size of $5.3bn • Identified as Virtual Digital Asset (VDA). Under Section 2 (47A) of the Income Tax Act (1961).
Payment system ○22 digital transactions per capita in 2019 Govt. interventions


•NPCI Products : UPI, IMPS, RuPay, Bharat bill pay

•Payment infrastructure development fund

•Rationalisation of merchant discount rate (MDR)

    •Regulatory sandbox initiative of RBI
Startups Startups


•India has become 3rd largest start-up ecosystem in the world after US and China.

•Total unicorns 105

•India has produced one unicorn every 8 days in

2021 (44 unicorns in 2021)


•Global innovation index : 46/131

•R&D Spend : 0.66% of GDP while USA (2.8%), South Korea (4.2%)



•Start-up Accelerators of MeitY for Product

Innovation, Development and Growth

(SAMRIDH) Programme

•Startup India mission

•9,000 ATAL tinkering labs

•Tax breaks

•E-biz portal

•Mudra Yojna

•Fund of funds project

•Credit guarantee fund trust

Gaming ○15,000 crore industry by 2023 in India


○India has second largest number of gamers

○Almost quarter of Indian gamers have missed work while playing games

Housing Housing


•3 crores and 1.2 crores houses required in rural and urban areas respectively

○PM Awas yojna


○Model tenancy act, 2019

○Decreased GST rate (8% to 1%)

E-Vehicles Bad examples


•Recently fire catching incident of e-vehicles

•Industry poised to grow to $7bn by 2025



•Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Electric Vehicles (FAME II) scheme

•Production-Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme for Advanced Chemistry Cell (ACC) for the supplier side

•EV30@30 campaign, which aims for at least

ALSO READ  S Gautham Raj Biography, Age, UPSC Marksheet, Rank, Optional Subject, Preparation Strategy
    30% new vehicle sales to be electric by 2030.
Logistics Logistics


•13% of GDP in India

•India ranks 35th in logistics performance Index, 2021 from 54th in 2014

Taxation Indirect Tax collection


•Rs. 12.9 lakh crores as total tax collection in FY22

•GST collection as top contributor (Rs. 5.9 lakh crores)

•Highest ever GST collection in April 2022 : 1.68 lakh crores

Direct tax

•More than 7 crore income tax returns by March 2022

•only 4.9% Indians pay income taxes.

Schemes for Tax compliance enhancement


•Aadhaar – PAN linkage,

•Online filing

•Faceless dispute resolution mechanism

•Project Insight,

•e-way bills,

•Project Saksham

•Vivad se Vishwas

As per Economic Survey 2017, India ranks 13th among G-20 countries (Economic Survey, 2017) in mobilization of taxes.

GST ○April month collection : Rs. 1.68 lakh crores


○Taxpayers registered doubled : 6 million to 13 million

○Cooperative federalism : GST council met

47 times in last 5 years despite covid


○Share of cess increased from 10.4% (2011) to 15.3% (2019)

Fiscal Policy Fiscal policy data


•Fiscal deficit 2021-22 : 6.7% of GDP

•Debt to GDP : 85.2%

•Combined states debt to GDP : 31%

•Target by 2025 : Central (40%) and state (20%), Total (60%)

•Fiscal deficit target by FY26 : 4.5% of GDP

State capital expenditure

•About 2/3rd of total CAPEX come from state spending

Schemes for fiscal consolidation


•FRBM act, 2003, amended in 2019

•Financial stability and development council

•Increased ways and means advances

•Finance commission fiscal roadmap

Gig economy ○NITI aayog project 23.5 mn gig workforce by 2030  
SEZs ○355 SEZ in India


○Exports (25% of total exports)

○70% of SEZs in only 5 states (Tamil nadu, Gujarat etc)

○Employement to 2.4mn workers

○SEZ act, 2005
E-commerce ○15% share in India’s retail market


○India is 8th largest e-commerce market globally

Government steps


•Open network for digital commerce (ONDC)

•Government e-marketplace (GeM)

•Equalisation levy rules, 2016

•Implementation of OECD BEPS rules

•100% FDI in marketplace e-commerce model

•Consumer protection (E-commerce) rules, 2020 •Digital technology

    •Promotion of UPI
Carbon Inequality •Oxfam report 2020, the richest 1% emit more than twice as much CO2 as the bottom 50% of the world Steps needed


•Proper tracking of individual emissions

•Scaling up public investments in low-carbon energy production

•Progressive wealth taxes

•Implementing Global Carbon Incentive (GCI)

•Incorporating principles of social dialogue at all levels

Natural farming ZBNF given by Subhash Palekar



•Jivamrit: Bio-stimulant to enhance fertility of soil by promoting microorganism activity

•Whapasa: Activation of earthworms in soil to create water vapour condensation

•Mulching: Covering of soil surface to conserve moisture

NMEO-OP •Reduce domestic oil prices


•Increase production by 3 times to 11 MT

•Area under cultivation from 3.70 lakh HA (2021) to

10 lakh HA (2026) and 16 Lakh HA (2030)

•Viability Formula is a Minimum Support Pricetype mechanism and the government will fix this at 14.3% of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) price.

•Starting with NE states and A&N islands

•Provision of Rs 5 crore of 5 mt/hr (million tonne per hectare) with pro-rata increase for higher

  capacity will be given


•High yield of oil-palms of up to 4-10 times of other oil crops

•Goal to achieve self-efficiency in vegetable oil

Palm oil imports are 55% of all vegetable oil imports; 94% of palm oil is used in Vegetable oil demand (Critical for food inflation)



Basic Income


•Suggested by ES 2016-17


•require a public expenditure of 4-10% of GDP

Issue Data Government interventions
India and climate change at glance ○Achieved 40% of energy capacity from Non-fossil resources


○Non-fossile energy at 170 GW in June


○Forest cover : 24.62%

○National action plan on climate change


○National adaptation fund for climate change

○National biofuel policy

○National wind solar hybrid policy

•Solar rooftop programme

•Ultra mega solar parks


○Perform achieve and Trade (PAT)


•Solar rooftop programme

  •Ultra mega solar parks



○Perform achieve and Trade (PAT) scheme

•International solar alliance

○Coailition for disaster resilient infrastructure (CDRI)

Genetically modified




•Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can be defined as organisms (i.e. plants, animals or microorganisms) in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally E.g. BT cotton
Municipal solid waste •India is estimated to generates 62-million-ton MSW annually, of which only 11.9 MT is treated and 31 MT is dumped in landfill sites  
Sea level rise •As per reports, the average sea-level across the globe has risen by 16-21 cm over the last century  
Plastics •According to WEF, 95% of plastic packaging material value ($80-120 billion/annum globally), is lost just after short first use.


•Every day approximately 8 million pieces of plastic pollution find their way into our oceans

•Plastics consistently make up 80% of all marine debris studied

Health problems


•Bisphenol Acid which affects brain development and behavior

•Microplastics : infertility

•Physical damage- When such plastic is accidently ingested, especially among

children, it can block their air passage. E.g., balloons

•Release of chemicals : cause hormonal

    imbalance or even neurodegenerative disorders


Economic scourge

•Waste collection, segregation and processing is an economically draining activity

•Diminished value in circular economy

Environmental scourge

•Marine litter


•Corals and mangroves

•Challenge to biodiversity

•Loss of environmental productivity- due to alteration of micro-climate.

•Non-biodegradability- It stays in the environment for 1000s of years.




•Green Hydrogen is generated by using renewable sources such as solar and wind energy.


•It is produced through water electrolysis, producing water and water vapor as byproducts.

•TERI has estimated that India’s demand for green hydrogen will go up from 6 mt in 2020 to about 50 mt by 2050.

•National Hydrogen Energy Mission


•Target : India should aim for the ‘1-1-1 target for green hydrogen’ viz. to achieve $1 per 1 kg in 1 decade

Carbon trading Kyoto protocol


•Cap and trade system

In India


•Renewable energy certificate (REC)

•Cap and trade system •Renewable energy certificate (REC)

mechanism •Emission trading mechanism


•Energy saving certificates under Perform achieve and trade (PAT) scheme

Air pollution ○India is home to 11 of the 15 most polluted cities in central and south asia


•Graded response action plan •Constitution of statutory body : Commission for air quality management (CAQM)


•National clean air programme (NCAP)

Eco Sensitive zones (ESZs) •Areas within 10 kms around Protected Areas, National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries.


•ESZs are notified by Government of India under Environment Protection Act 1986

River pollution ○CPCB has identified 351 polluted river stretches in India
Water •India handle 17% of world population with only Schemes

•India handle 17% of world population with only

scarcity 4% of fresh water availability


○Annual per capita availability is 1500 cubic meters in 2021 (decline of 75% since


○Groundwater level declined by 61% (2007-17) ○70% of surface water unfit for consumption ○The average rainfall in India is around 125 cm.

○South-west monsoon constituted 75% of the total rainfall (June to September), 13% of it by north-east monsoon (October to December),

•Jal shakti abhiyaan


•Atal bhujal yojna

•PM Krishi sinchai yojna

•Jal jivan mission

•AMRUT 2.0

•Composite water management index (NITI)

•Grey water management

•Mission Amrit sarovar

Land degradation ○30% of total geographical area of India underwent land degradation  
Sustainable agriculture ○India ranks first in number of organic farmers


○Sikkim is world’s first fully organic state

○Agro sector amount for 14% of GHG emissions in India



t induced

○About 50 million peope have been displaced due to development project Causes for Development induced displacement (DID)

displacemen○While tribals constitute 8% of Indian

tpopulation, 40% of displaced population

in tribal

Government efforts

○National rehabilitation and resettlement policy (2007)

○Right to fair compensation and transparency in land acquisition, 2013


•Agricuture expansion

•Water supply (Irrigation, Dams)

•River interlinking

•Energy (Mining, exploration)

•Parks and forest reserves

•Transportation (Roads, Highways)

•Population redistribution schemes

Risks associated

•Economic marginalisation

•Loss of livelihood



•Psychological trauma

•Social disintegration

•Violation of human rights

•Loss of property without fair compensation

Way forward

•Developing an action plan for prevention against arbitrary displacement

•Dissemination of information about rights of displaced people

•Passing development project only after proper rehabilitation

•Monitoring and reporting systems

•Principle of sustainable development

    •Polluter pays principle
Plastic pollution ○3.5 million tonnes of plastic waste generated annually


○Only 60% of plastic waste in collected

○Single use plastic (SUP) is the one-third of all the plastics produced globally



•Plastic waste management rules, 2016

•Swachh bharat mission 2.0

•Clean and green campaign

•Private sector collaborations : India plastics pact (IPP)

Ethanol blending Target


•20% ethanol blending by 2025

•Potential to reduce GHG emissions from fuel by 33%



•Ethanol blending programme : Oil marketing companies selling petrol blended with ethanol upto 10%

•PM-JIVAN (Jaiv Indhan) yojna

•E-100 Project

•Allowing ethanol production from sugar based raw materials

Lifestyle for the




•Introduced as a concept by the Prime Minister Shree Narendra Modi during the 26th COP26 in Glasgow.


•Aims to promote an environmentally conscious lifestyle focused on ‘mindful and deliberate

utilization’ instead of ‘mindless and wasteful consumption

•3P Approach : People, Planet, Profit


•Use of traditional knowledge to address triple planetary crisis of climate change, bio diversity loss and pollution

•E.g. use of banana leaves or ‘pattal’ in place of disposable plates and spoons

ALSO READ  Maliye Sri Pranav Biography, Age, UPSC Marksheet, Rank, Optional Subject, Preparation Strategy


Issue Data Government interventions
Internal security  


•NATGRID: Intelligennce database for counter terrorism

Fake news •Communal disharmony : For example, fake photos were used to spread communal riots in Muzaffarnagar in 2013.


•Sensationalisation of news by Media for TRP : a report by a news channel presented increasing recruitment of Muslims in civil services as a well planned Jihad

•Infodemic : rumors of lockdown on WhatsApp led to hoarding of essential items

Legal and institutional measures


•News Broadcasters’ Association: It is a self-regulatory body of private news channels

•Information Technology Act 2000: Section 66 of the IT act

•Indian Penal Code: Sections 153 and 295 can be invoked against fake news on the ground of provocation of riots

•Information technology

(Guidelines for intermediaries and digital media ethics code) Rules, 2021:

•Self-regulation by social media such as Youtube algorithm to

reduce fake news




•Assam Rifles- Indo-Myanmar border.


•Border Security Force- Indo-Pakistan

•India’s land border covers around 15,106 km and maritime border

•Border Security Force- Indo-Pakistan 15,106 km and maritime border

Police Force and Indo-Bangladesh borders.


•Indo-Tibetan Border Police- IndiaChina-Nepal border.

•Sashashtra Seema Bal- Indo-Nepal and Indo-Bhutan borders

•Maritime borders: Indian Coast Guards (ICG)

around 7,516 km





•Recruiting soldiers in the age group of 17½- 21 across the three services

•duration of four years

•25% agniveers will be retained and the remaining 75% will be discharged

•The Navy and Airforce will enlist women too as agniveers

•insurance cover of 48 lakhs during the term of service

•exit package of 11.71 lakh rupees. Equal contribution will be made by the agniveers (seva-nidhi) and the government towards this corpus.

•Not eligible for pension




t (Territorial vs maritime)

AFSPA •Armed Forces Special Powers Act 1958 is an act of the Parliament that grants


•special powers to the Indian Armed Forces to conduct operations and arrest without warrant for maintaining public order in regions declared as “disturbed areas

•In past, BP Jeevan Reddy committee and the Veerappa Moily report have recommended that the Act be repealed


•Based on colonial legacy : Brought in as ordinance by the British in 1942 to suppress the Quit India movement



(Innovations for Defense Excellence)

•Scheme for defence indiginiazation


•military-grade products in shorter timelines

•Defence India Startup Challenge

(DISC) by iDEX

•Raise private sector participation : Corporate Venture Capital

Women in Defence ○Army : 3.8% ; Air force : 13% ; Navy : 6%


○Air force is the only one to employ in combat roles

○Recently Indian Air force gave permanent commission to women
Drug trafficking According to Narcotics control bureau “exponential” rise in the seizure of  
  drugs in India,


•300% in case of heroin and

•172% in case of opium, in between 2017-21

Money laundering Government laws and provisions


•PMLA, 2002

•NDPS act, 1985


•Foreign exchange management act,


•Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Amendment Bill, 2015:

•ED for investigation

•Financial intelligence unit

International level




•UN Convention against organised crime

3 stages





Make diagram compulsorily in exam

PMLA conviction rate : 0.5%

Cyber security ○Global cybersecurity index : 10th rank India


○India suffers an average of nearly 2,00,000 threats every day as per USbased cyber security firm, Norton

○Lack of trained manpower: The 2013 policy envisaged 500,000 experts in 5

○National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC) : Battle cyber security threats in strategic areas such as air control, nuclear and space.


○National cyber coordination

  years, but we had reached only 10% of the target.


•Example: Huge understaffing of CERT-In

○E.g. ransomware attack on Oil India Limited in April 2022,

○Udaipur killing for blasphemy

○places like Jamtara have become notorious for vishing

centre (NCCC) to scan internet traffic coming into the country.


○A new Cyber and Information Security (CIS) Division has been created to tackle internet crimes such as cyber threats, child pornography and online stalking.


○National cyber security policy

Drones in Internal security Steps by government


•Counter drone system developed by

Defence Research and Development

Organisation (DRDO)

•National Counter Rogue Drone Guidelines, 2019

•Unmanned Aircraft Systems Rules


•An intra-departmental task force is working on the aspects of counter drone measures, especially in Punjab and adjoining Jammu and Kashmir

•Smart Shooter’s SMASH 2000 Plus fire control systems

Defence ○Second largest arms import in Govt Interventions
imports 2015-19 period


○Highest dependency on russia (46%)

•Raised FDI limits


•Defence acquisition procedure,


•Corpotarisation of ordanance factory boards

•Export promotion cell : Brahmos deal Indo phillipines

•SRIJAN Portal

Disaster ○59 per cent of the landmass is prone to earthquakes


○12 percent of its land is prone to floods and river erosion

○68 per cent of the cultivable area is vulnerable to drought

○5,700 km out of 7,500 km of coastline is prone to cyclone and tsunamis

○Weather and climate disasters have surged five times in the last 50 years disproportionately affecting the poor and developing countries (WMO)

○National disaster management policy, 2019


○National disaster management Plan, 2016

○SENDAI Framework, (2015-30)

○National disaster management act, 2005


○Model building bye laws,


○National disaster response fund

○NDMA guidelines for disasters like earthquake, cold wave, cyclone etc.

Forest fire •According to a 2019 Forest Survey of India (FSI) Report, 21.4% of the forest cover in India is prone to fires


•95% of forest fires are known to result from anthropogenic causes

Government steps


•Forest Fire Prevention and Management Scheme

•National Action Plan for Forest Fire Control

•Forest Fire Alert System: Through the Fire Alert System (FAST) Version 3.0

•NDMA Guidelines

•Establishing a National Forest Fire Knowledge Network

Bioeconomy •The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) defines bioeconomy as the production, utilization  
  and conservation of biological resources, including related knowledge, science, technology, and innovation, to provide information, products, processes and services across all economic sectors aiming toward a sustainable economy  
GHG emissions Agro GHG emissions


•Contribute 18% of total emissions , third highest after Energy and


○Secure Himalayas


○National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC

○National Clean Air Programme


○Ethanol blending of 20% by 2025

Renewable energy ○Achieved target of 40% of renewable energy capacity in November 2021 ○PM KUSUM Yojna


○Atal jyoti yojna

○National Solar mission

○Rooftop solar programe

○Ethanol blending

○National hydrogen mission

○International solar alliance

○Energy from biomass

Clean water Water crisis


•NITI aayog, 2018 report says roughly 600mn population or 45% of India is facing high to severe water stress

○Jal jeevan mission


○Atal Bhujal Yojna (ATAL JAL) :

Groundwater management

Oceans ○About 94 percent of the earth’s wildlife is found in the  


More than 70 percent of the

earth’s oxygen is produced by

the ocean

Ocean covers more than 70

percent of the earth’s surface.

Science and


National Biopharma Mission




National Supercomputing


ATAL Tinkering labs

PM Research fellowship


Women in



DISHA Program for women in


KIRAN programme

CURIE programme

Indo-US fellowship in STEMM



s of Indians

in science

Maoism and naxalism Government interventions


•Black panther and grey hound strategy

•MGNREGA, 5th schedule, 6th schedule areas

•PESA act

•Operation SAMADHAAN

•STs reservation in public office, public services

•TRIFED for economic upliftmeent

•Janjatiya gaurav diwas (15th november)

•AFSPA, 1958

Anti microbial resistance ○WHO declared top 10 biggest threats (AMR) ○Jaipur declaration on AMR


○National health policy, 2017

Electric vehicle ○Expected to reach $7 bn by 2025 ○FAME India scheme ( Rs.


10,000 crores)

○E-Amrit portal one stop destination for all information on Evs

○Draft battery swap policy by NITI

○PLI scheme for Advanced chemical cell battery storage

Technology in



○Agri tech projected to grow to $30bn by 2025 ○Kissan Drones


○Mkissan app

○Soil health card scheme

    ○Computerised sprinkler irrigation


○Satellite for weather prediction

○AI-Sowing app

○Agri stack

○Krishi vigyan kendras

Block chain ○National strategy on blockchain


○Presidio principles by WEF

Space missions Space industry


•Global industry is $360 bn and India’s share is just 2%

Internal security    
Cyber security Cybersecurity


•According to Data security council of India (DSCI), India has been 2nd most affected country by cyber attacks in 2016-18

•ShadowPad malware from China attacked India power infrastructure

Terrorism Terrorism


•Global terrorism Index, 2020 ranks India as 8th position in the world

Police Police


•Overburdened : 137 personnel per

Technology in policing


•Crime and Criminal Tracking

  1 lakh population (UN recommendation = 222)


•Only 47% conviction rate

Network System (CCTNS),


•Inter-operable Criminal Justice System (ICJS),

•National Automated Facial Recognition System

•Prakash Singh case

Defence Military spending of India


•$76 billion (3rd highest globally)

•Defense pension alone is 0.6% of


○Agnipath Scheme


○One Rank One Pension Scheme


Good governement initiatives by

Indian Army

○Operation Sadbhavana :

Humane initiative by Indian Army in J&K. Focus on

education, youth, women empowerment

○Mission Pehal : Talk face to face with kashmiri youth to understand their grievances

Oil imports Oil Imports


•Every $1 rise in oil price lead to $10,700 crore rise in import bill

Sri lanka crisis Srilanka Crisis


•Inflation hit all time high of 60%,

  rising continuosly


•Not having foreign reserves for imports of goods for next 2 weeks