e-Governance | UPSC Notes

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e governance upsc notes


  • Application of ICT in Govt functioning to create “SMART” (Simple, Moral, A/C, Responsive & Transparent) Governance 
  • Corollary of Digital Rev & 4th I.R

Types of e-Gov

  • G2G—
    • KHAJANE (Kar)—For Digitalization of land record
    • PFMS—To est an efficient fund flow system
    • E–Samikhsa— For tracking progress on projects & policy initiatives
  • G2B— SWIFT (CBEC), GSTN, e-procurement, MCA 21— to provide e-services to Companies registered under C.A
  • G2C Initiatives–Bhoomi Project (Kar), Gyandoot (MP), Lokvani (UP), MyGov, Digilocker, e-NAM

Objectives / Benefits of e-Gov

  • Goals of e-Governance (2nd ARC)—
    • ↑ QoS delivery
    • Empowering people through information
    • ↑ efficiency within Govts
    • ↑ interface with business & industry
  • G.G—>C.C Adm + Speedy Gov—>  corruption & Red tapism
  • DBT— ES 2015—DBT corruption
    • ↑ T/P, A/C + Brings state close to citizens—MyGov
    • Expanded reach of Governance
    • ↓ “Information Asymmetry” b/w citizens & Govt–> Brings Govt much closer to Citizens.

Importance of e-Gov in Digitisation era

  • Transforming lives of citizens— Ease of services—> “Ease of living”—
    • e-learning—> SWAYAM, DIKSHA
    • e-Healthcare—> eSanjeevani—Telemedicine Service Platform, e-Hospital Reg
    • Skill dev–> e-Talim
    • Financial Inclusion—> M-Banking, Micro-ATM prog, JAM
    • e-Seva (Andhra)—> All services delivered online by connecting citizens to respective Depts
    • e-Mitra (Raj)— Integrated Citizen Services Center—Bill Payment, Payment of taxes etc 
    • Spandana (Andhra)—> ↑ Access to  police stations for women
    • e-Courts—↑ Access to judicial services
  • Real Time Governance—PRAGATI—Started a culture of Pro-Active Gov & Timely Implementation
  • Economic—
    • iFRIENDS (Kerela)— Single Window for ease of tax pay
    • EoDB—e-tender, e-procurement, MCA-21
    • Agriculture—e-NAM
    • ‘Tranparent Taxation– Honouring the honest”– Faceless assessment & Faceless appeal
  • Participative Democracy—myGOV—citizens give suggestions to Govt
  • Help in achieving SDGs—
    • SDG 6– By SMART Meters, Soil sensers
    • SDG 7– By SMART Grids, SMART Appliances
    • SDG 11– SMART City, Big data analytics
    • SDG 12–SMART Villages
    • SDG 13– Digital solutions to climate change
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Govt’s Efforts

  • NeGP—To ↑ accessibility of Govt services through CSCs  
  • e-Kranti (NeGP 2.0)—To “Transform e-Gov for Transforming Governance”.
    • Language localisation
    • Govt process re-engineering
    • Integration & interoperable of services
  • Digital India—To create “Digitally empowered society & Knowledge economy”
  • For promoting digital literacy— 
    • NDLM—Atleast 1 person/ household with crucial digital literacy skills by 2020
    • PMGDISHA—6 cr households digitally literate in rural areas
    • Vittiya Sakshartha Abhiyan (VISAKA)— For e-financial literacy
  • Measure to address Digital divide— 
    • ↑ Accessibility & Affordability—Bharatnet (NoFN) , PM-WANI
    • Behavioral economics— Nudge theory, Awareness—Discounts on cashless transactions.
  • National Conference on e-Gov- Adopted Mumbai Declaration (2020), Shillong Declaration (2019)
  • National e-Governance Awards 2020– Antyodaya Saral portal (HR)— for Excellence in faceless, paperless, cashless service delivery.

Challenges to e-Gov

  • Social hurdles–
    • Digital Divide— Rich-poor, male-female, urban-rural—Makes e-gov elusive rather than inclusive— Internet Trends 2017 report— only 27% India’s pop uses internet.
    • Language Barrier + Low Digital literacy
    • Perception of risk / Lack of Trust + Resistance to Change
    • Digital Quality of Life Index 2020—57/85 in terms of Internet quality
  • Economic issues–
    • Digital Infra deficit— electricity, broadband connectivity
  • Technical issues—
    • Privacy & Security—Symentec report— India is 3rd most vulnerable to cyber threats.
    • Identity mismatch & DoS to beneficiaries. Ex— Denying ration due to fingerprints mismatch.
    • Inter-operability issues

Critical Perspective

  • Story of e-Gov has been of Quantity rather than quality.
  • They r seen more as computerisation, office automation & inventory Mgt rather than as a means of G.G-governance

Way Forward

  • 2nd ARC—Building a Congenial Env is sine qua non for successful implementation of e-Gov— This should be achieved by—
    • “KISS” model (keep it small & simple)
    • Capacity Building & Creating Awareness— Create A network of training inst in states
    • Dev a national e-Gov ‘enterprise architecture’
    • Dev a critical information infra assets protection strategy.
    • Need for a Legal Framework for e-Gov
  • ↑ Digital infra, literacy, Plug D.D—Invest in HRs
  • Privacy protection & Security protocol
  • Build a cadre of Intermediaries for last mile Gov (And­hra—Ward secretariat prog for delivering Govt services at doorstep).  
  • It has a promising future of providing Faster, smarter & more pro-active Govt, but ….. needs to be addressed to make it more inclusive & participative 
  • Imp for “Ease of Gov” & ”Ease of living”, which are imperitive for ‘New India’.
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According to the World Bank, while digital technologies have spread rapidly in much of the world, resulting digital dividends have lagged behind.

Digital dividends

  • Growth, jobs & services, EoDB, knowledge economy
  • e-Gov–> Cost of transactions for firms, individuals & public sector.
  • ↑ inclusion in Service delivery– Digital empowerment of masses


  • Digital Divide, Low digital literacy–> ↓ Inequities in society–> As more capable have received most of the benefits from Digital revolution.


  • Democratisation of Digital space– Making internet universally accessible & affordable