113 Ethics terminology UPSC PDF

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Ethics Short Notes 

  1. Ethics: Ethics is to society what grammar is to language: former IIT Director; Ethics of police

department; Ethics depends on context. e.g. Killing in

self defence; May transcend narrow stipulations of law, rules and regulations. Eg. Helping Pregnant women cut

a line; 2nd ARC- No society, person, organisation can survive without ethics for long; Heinz Dilemma: Steal the medicine, if the shop keeper is selling at price twice of original; Cooperation: Ravi-Beas Dispute; Ensuring Probity: Vijaya Malya, Nirav Modi [deliberate defaulters];

Vashudhaiv Kutumbakam [Cooperation with Bangladesh-> signed 100th CAA, Tista water, Vaccine diplomacy]; Swami Vivekanada [Reaping gender dividend- IMF 27%]; Ethics is the set of standards which guide our behaviour, choices and actions; Ethics is knowing the difference between what you have right to do and what is right to do. [Potter Stewart]; It is not living that matters but living rightly- Socrates; In law a man is guilty when he violates the rights of others. In ethics he is guilty if he only thinks of doing so. [Immanuel Kant]; Unethical behaviour significantly increases the cost of doing business; It takes less time to do things right than to explain why you did it wrong.

  1. Dimension of Ethics: Descriptive ethics: What do people think is right?; Meta-ethics: What does “right” even mean; Normative (prescriptive) ethics: How should people act?; Applied ethics: How do we take moral knowledge and put it into practice?
  2. Ethical Universalism: Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Geneva Conventions (which define fair treatment of prisoners of war);
  3. Ethical Relativism: Narasu Appa Mali Case- Bombay HC- personal laws cannot be set aside even if they were in violation of Fundamental Rights-> Sabarimala Judgement;
  4. Media Ethics: Andrew Cuomo Case: Story of his scandal

was not shown on CNN Prime Time, as it was hosted by his brother; extensive coverage of Aarushi murder case

at the cost of breach of privacy laws; difference between showing a mirror to the event and showing a magnifying glass; Impact on moral attitude & political attitude [+ve= Swachh Bharat, Fit India, Twitter-allowed

a direct face-to-face interaction of political leaders with the voters, Media presence at voting and counting

centres; -ve= paid electoral campaign= Cambridge

Analytica]; Fake News: Fake news is the deliberate creation of factually incorrect content to mislead people for gains; Former

Miss Ukraine Anastasiia Leena joined forces amid war; Pakistan

PM threatens Israel with nuclear attack after a fake news report of Israeli ageing use of nuclear weapon against Pakistan; Infodemic; Demonstration Effect and agenda setting theory

[cab be used form promoting good practices]; Media trial impedes the right to a fair trial and justice of a person+jeopardise the rule of law; Media during disaster: People’s right to know’ just does not apply here. Nobody has a right to know how much anyone else is grieving; Norway –

compiling obituaries before death; protected under

section 79 of IT ACT 2000; Ramnath Goenka- journalism of courage- stood for truth; National Social Media Policy;

  1. Social Media: Mark Twain had rightly remarked that “A lie can travel half way around the world while the truth is putting on its shoes.” Pink Whale [instead of blue whale] initiative by government of Sao Polo, to post any good deeds done by players; A train passenger’s tweet in 2018, helped save 26 girls from Child trafficking who were being transported from one place to other- railway ministry proactively responded; Kangaroo courts by media affecting health of democracy: CJI Ramana;
  2. Social Media and security: A free press should neither be an ally nor an adversary but a constructive critic- Mahatma Gandhi; Pakistan has been found ‘honey trapping’ Indian soldiers, scientists; twitter account of “@SHAMIWITNESS”; Access to social media in Kashmir- 25% in 2010 about 70% by end of 2015; National Social Media Policy; WhatsApp forward of Jana-Gana Mana world’s best national anthem by UNESCO; Singapore passed POFMA in 2019 [Protection from Online Falsehoods and Manipulation Act];

Christchurch Call to Action”;

  1. Environmental Ethics: Includes intrinsic value. [wild plant- not only instrumental value as medicine but also independently]; Environment V/S Development: Aristotle Golden mean [to express balance]; Baba Amte; Anna Hazare; Chipko; Naramada Bachao Andolan; Whanganui river in New Zealand- status of legal person; Living entity status to Ganga and Yamuna; Gandhi Ji- The world has enough for everyone’s need but not for everyone’s greed; islands in the Maldives and Tuvalu are rapidly shrinking; critiques consumerism accompanying modern capitalism and anthropocentrism- calls for a

‘green lifestyle’ [Bio-centricism and eco-centricism]; Climate Justice; CBDR; Uttrakhand Green GDP; a payment of ecosystem services; Environment impact assessment, Social Impact assessment; Tulasi Gowda, a

72-year-old tribal woman from Karnataka, conferred Padma Shri for her contribution to the protection of the environment [Encyclopaedia of Forest].

  1. Business Ethics [include it with corporate governance]: MNCs shown double standards in selling their products in developing countries [low quality products]; e-commerce company like Amazon, Flipkart-> ethical issues like protection of data, customers’ privacy and security; pharmaceutical company- improper clinical trials, misleading advertisements, nexus with doctors, patent claims for noninnovations; energy company produces energy by utilizing various natural resources like fossil fuels, nuclear fuel- price risks in exploration, In 2018, a legal

case filed against Apple, Google, Dell, Tesla, for manufacturing products derived from Child labour in mines of Congo;

environmental concerns like oil spills as well as risks to human life in the form of nuclear disaster; Satyam Scandal; Rising cases of unethical practices by corporates such as Vodafone, Ranbaxy & Apple; Bengaluru based Neolacta Lifesciences Pvt Ltd only company in Asia selling mother’s milk for profit- FSSAI cancelled the company’s license; Twitterati furious after pictures, video surface showing pizza dough under mop and

toilet brush in Domino’s Bengaluru outlet; Sensodyne

fined Rs. 10 Lakh by central consumer protection authority over misleading adds [Recommended by dentist worldwide, world’s no.1 sensitivity toothpaste]; Ethics of Care [empathy and compassion towards its employees];

  1. CSR: at least 5 crore net profit or 1000 cr turn over or 500 cr net worth, they’ll have to spend 2% of their 3 year average annual net profit in CSR activities; “SBI ka Apna Gaon” Scheme [100% financial inclusion in all

BPL families]; Mahindra and Mahindra – project

Nanhi Kali – education of underprivileged girls; AS A

SUBJECT MUST BE INTRODUCED IN BUSINESS

SCHOOLS, COLLEGES AND UNI; National Corporate

Social Responsibility Awards of Ministry of

Corporate Affairs; National CSR Exchange portal by Govt; Zomato giving food delivery job to Divyang in main city areas;

  1. Feministic Ethics: Khasis of Meghalaya & Nairs of

Kerala, having matrilineal leanings; Aristotle justifies the exclusion of women from political activity; Lord Buddha was against the entry of women in Buddhist Councils; Rousseau a woman should not be brilliant. A brilliant wife is a plague to her family; Kant claimed that women only have the ability to sense and not of reason; Nietzsche stated that equal rights for women are evidence of a society in decline; One is not born, but is made a woman; Piplantri village located in Rajsamand district in Rajasthan plant 111 trees every time a girl child is born [Eco-feminism]; [Chhavi Rajawat, the youngest sarpanch in India, [also MBA] her village Soda [Rajasthan], to make the villagers financially self-sufficient in order to lead a meaningful socio-economic life; Malvika Hegde [revived Cafe Coffee day as CEO, after tragic demise of her husband, 31 March 2019- 7200 corporate debt dropped to 1731 crore on 31 March 2021> without increasing the price of coffee]; women do less well in Maths test; PM

Jacinda Ardern of New Zealand led to be a global example during COVID;

  1. Women safety: IPC Section 354 A- sexually coloured remarks are sufficient to regard accused guilty of sexual

harassment; IPC 509 – Crime related to insult to the modesty of woman; “Every 15 minutes a woman is molested in India, with 80% of the cases going unheard and unprotected”;

  1. Sports Ethics: winning should not be achieved at the cost of the game itself; National Sports Development Code of India, 2011, current socioeconomic atm. in India & prevalent social & moral values do not encourage betting & gambling;
  2. Medical Ethics: 4 pillars: Autonomy [it should show respect for the patient and their right to make decisions], Non-Maleficence- not harming the patient, Beneficence: Benefit the patient, Justice;
  3. Personal Ethics VS Private Ethics : Keshub Chandra Sen fighting against child marriage and yet marrying his own minor daughter to the King of Cooch Behar. A person who has displayed professional morality may slip in private matters, such as Bill Clinton indulged in extra-marital relationship in private life while he is credited with ushering in economic reforms in USA; Lal Bahadur Shastri asked his own family to fast for a day before asking the nation to do the same in times of food scarcity; way civil servant treats women in his family

reflects in how he handles female co-workers + whether policies implemented by him have gender bias or not; personally doctor might feel, abortion is morally wrong, but has to perform it to save someone’s life as per professional ethics.; Cristiano Ronaldo [teach his children same value, cocacola incident]; personal values [love, compassion, honesty]; Public relations values [integrity, accountability, trust, impartiality];

  1. Public and Private life balance [Work Life balance]: Emotional Intelligence;
  2. Public-sector vs Private sector Ethics: Private sector works on Egoistic (self-interest) principle, while public sector follows Kantian/Utilitarian principle & thus face different ethical issues; Philosopher King- Plato (Virtue of King is the virtue of society); several common ethical issues like harassment & discrimination at workplace;
  3. Moral: beliefs of the individual or group as to what is right or wrong; personal compass of right and wrong; Preference for vegetarian food or non-vegetarian food is more concerned with morals; Depriving a person of livelihood, to

construct a dam may result in benefits to many but the cost incurred to that person may be incalculable; Divine Command Theory: morality is ultimately based on commands or character of God- morally right action is one that God commands or requires; Morality Bank in China: to award people for doing good deeds. credits can be exchanged for rewards such as haircut or health check-up;

  1. Values from family: Circle enclosed in Triangle Diagram- Family, School, society-> Values; iPad

parenting; making him competent to move beyond the veil of I, Me to kindness; Children are great imitators, so give them something great to imitate; No human is ever born bad or

wrong;

  1. Values: Values are individual principles or qualities that guide judgement and behaviour of a person or a group; Diagram: Traditional Value Vs Modern values [Artha

[Economic values], Kama [hedonic value], Dharma

[intellectual value], Moksha [spiritual value]];

Mahatma Gandhi- both means and ends should be good; Kailash Satyarthi- empathy towards children; Sachin Tendulkar handled losses with

integrity, sportsmanship and humility; Success is transitory if not imbibed by value: Vijay Malya, Neerav Modi; Value led success inspires other and motivates upcoming generations: Nobel Prize winners- Kailash Satyarthi, Malala Yousafzai, APJ Abdul Kalam; Major

Dhyanchand- who refused to be the coach of a foreign team inspite of financial hardship, instils values of love for nation; Abraham Lincoln’s letter to the teacher of his son make a person learn the value of self respect- He writes “Teach him to sell his brawn to highest bidders but never to put a price on his heart and soul”; Boot Polish movie- dignity of labour and sibling love; Cast Away- attempt to survive against all odds/ grit/ determination. Value are like lighthouses; they are signals giving us direction, meaning and purpose; Values are like

fingerprints. Nobody’s are same, but you leave them all over everything you do.- Elvis Presley; It is not living that matters but living rightly- Socrates; “Treat those who are good with goodness, and also treat those who are not good with goodness. Thus goodness is attained. Be honest to those who are honest, and be also honest to those who are not honest. Thus honesty is attained”. – Lao Tzu; Try not to become a man of success but rather try to become a man of value: Albert Einstein; A person without

values is the beast left loose in the world. (Albert Camus)

  1. Value crisis: Individual, family and Society, At the level of nature – Global warming, water, air, soil, noise, etc. pollution; Often people have 2 set of moralities: one for themselves, second set for the others; Youngsters would respect their mothers and sisters, yet indulge in eveteasing; NEP 2020- inclusions of traditional value [Nishkam Karma]; A.P.J. Abdul Kalam: we have guided missiles but misguided human beings; Hybrid terrorists: operatives who are not on any terror lists but are radicalised enough to carry out a strike and then slip back into routine life; Market Values [measure the worth of items based on monetary terms and tangible benefits];
  2. Foundational values of civil servants: “With bad laws and good civil servants it’s still possible to govern. But with bad civil servants even the best laws can’t help.” Otto Von Bismarck; To walk among the kings yet not loose the common touch [Rudyard Kipling];
  3. Political Neutrality: As election officer of college election, penalising the close friend for breaking the rules; TN Sheshan- did not bow to the government [any

political party], when they tried to limit EC powers; In Mohsina Begum case, Allahabad High Court observed “Whenever a new government is formed, there is a tidal wave of transfers of government servants”. These arbitrary transfers demoralize diligent and hardworking officers.

  1. Impartiality/ fairness: Being neutral and unprejudiced; 2 aspects- Wrt Public- no discrimination, provides equal services for welfare and Wrt Political executive- neutrality of administration; If one is the organiser of quiz competition in college if his younger brother participates in it, recusing himself from organising the quiz;

Arun Jaitley case; Chief Justice of India (CJI) N.V. Ramana recused himself from hearing of Andhra Pradesh accusing Telangana of depriving its people of their legitimate share of water for drinking and irrigation, because he hailed from both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana; Ayodhya-Ramjanmabhoomi case, Justice U U Lalit recused himself from the Constitution Bench after parties brought to his attention that he had appeared as a lawyer in a criminal case relating to the case;

  1. Non-partisan: non-disposition of civil servants towards any political party i.e. to remain politically neutral; Role of speaker, Governor in a state, NAM, Russia-Ukraine war and India’s stand; Mahabharata- Dhritrashtra did not follow a non partisan approach. He preferred his son over Pandu’s. It led to the greatest war of Mahabharata; 2nd ARC – “Bureaucracy should remain government neutral, not programme neutral”;
  2. Responsiveness: Nirbhaya case- people asked for change in law government responded positively.
  3. Objectivity: Nishkam karma,
  4. Anonymity: Facelessness- civil servants accountable to only political executive; during covid political

executive were held accountable by people for mismanagement. Anonymity is the strength of civil

servant- PM Modi [spoke out against fame hungry media post]; Any update has to come from office of DM social media account, instead of personal account; work

for cause not applause;

  1. Empathy: Empathy is seeing with the eyes of another, listening with the ear of another, and feeling with the heart of another; Pet Empathy Program [animals can teach children empathy- empathy level in children increased when they fed a pet dog]; Books to Help Kids Understand What It’s Like to Be a Refugee; US boss fires 900 employees on a single Zoom Call;
  2. Compassion: Compassion is to look beyond your own pain, to see the pain of others; Kindness and compassion can heal those wounds which medicine can’t. Compassion

makes a civil servant lead with not only head but also heart; Compassionate Kozhikode- Prashanth Nair in Kerala had vision to make the place hunger free [food coupons distributed]; Sonu Sood- lockdown migrants; Savitri Bai Phule [after Pune Plague]; Love and compassion are necessities, not luxuries. Without them humanity cant survive; Starting of Bharosa cell by an IPS officer [Atul

Kulkarni] to change the face of women safety; Raja Ram

Mohan Rai moved by the plight of his sister in law who died as

Sati, undertook Sati reform leading to its ban; BSF launches

Boat Ambulance service in Odisha’s Balimela reservoir; Shareef Chacha of Ayodhya performs the last rites of unclaimed dead bodies of all religions with full dignity [his son was murdered and left for the stray dogs to feed upon]-> Awarded Padma Shri in 2021; Uganda despite being a poor country is the largest refugee hosting country in Africa;

  1. Influence of society [Social influence]: Self and society are twin born; Social reformers- Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Gandhi Ji, Civil Services- TN Seshan; Types: Normative [to get socially accepted] and informative [Crowd has more information]; “Raja bola raat hai.Rani boli raat hai.Mantri bola

raat hai. Santri bole raat hai.Sab bole raat hai. Yeh subah ki baat hai”( the king says its night, the queen says its night, the minister says its night, the guard says its night, everyone says its night, but it is Morning) [Gorakh Pandey]; CAB component to bring change;

  1. Success: Success= Goal, Value= path; Success is a broader concept & not just a materialistic pleasure; Triangle of success- Skill, attitude, knowledge; Abraham Lincoln defeated in 26 campaigns he made for public office; In Australis’s marine seals recruitment an essential criteria is to make sure every trainee has a failure experience in his/her life so that he know how to cope up with difficult situations;
  2. Happiness: The purpose of life is to be happy, said the Dalai Lama; Life is a battle against uncertainties and challenges; Happiness means different things to different people and it is an individual’s call; in the long-term, our happiness hovers around the same level. For example, say you lose your job and experience a sharp decrease in happiness; at the time, you’d think that awful feeling would last forever. And yet, within a few months after this big event, your levels of happiness will probably have returned to a “normal” level; For much of history,
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happiness came from doing good. Even early philosophers such as Aristotle claimed true happiness, or eudaemonia, came from living a virtuous life; belief of YOLO (you-only-live-once).

E.g., drug abuse, sexual amorality;

  1. Virtue: Golden mean of Aristotle: Virtue exists as a mean state between various extremes of excess and deficiency;
  2. Vice: Absence of virtue
  3. Temperance: Moderation; Society promotes Moderation of anger, tolerance and harmony;
  4. Prejudices:
  5. Tolerance: Jainism- Syadavada- every view correct from own perspective; Individual level- Ram Lila at Bakshi ka Talab [Lucknow] organised by a Muslim couple. Last rites following hindu rituals performed by muslim man after death of a hindu friend; Societal level – Indian society is tolerant towards the linguistic groups. [Sri

Lanka and Pakistan divided on these lines]; Govt level- Accommodative [policy of govt towards Mizo group];

Akbar’s doctrine of Sulh-i-Kul; Launch of Ek Bharat

Shrestha Bharat; Constituent assembly debates; Racism George Floyd case; Mark of educated mind is to entertain a thought without accepting it; Voltaire- I may not agree with you, but I will defend till death your right to say it; Cultural Relativism; Let noble thoughts come to us from all sides- Rig Veda. One can tolerate something without accepting it, but one cannot accept something without tolerating it. For example, when a son or daughter tells a parent about an unwelcome career choice or marital partner, he or she wants that information not just to be tolerated, but also accepted; acceptance of the LGBTQ community will provide them a sense of security and inclusiveness; ‘Sabka Saath Sabka

Vikas’; Communal harmony and festival: Mudiyettu (Kerala)- each caste of village plays a specific role- leather hides for drum- Paryar tribe; Areca Nut by Thandan Caste etc; Dear Editor I disagree column in Indian Express- invite readers to tell why they differ with editorial positions; Russian govt refused to give state funeral to former Russian president Mikhail Gorbachev who is credited with bringing Economic reform in Russia and ending Cold War;

  1. Social norms: are societal expectations that guide behavior; inform-consult-involve-collaborate- empower (ICICE);
  2. Belief: idea which we hold to be true, even if it is irrational. E.g. Some people consider no.13 as unlucky; Belief-> Values-> Attitude.
  3. Integrity: Integrity is non-negotiable (that you cannot compromise on your integrity at any cost), and nonselective (means you cannot compromise it in any situation) quality; Mutual respect for each other’s

territorial integrity and sovereignty. (Panchsheel); Moral Integrity- consistent wrt following moral values [Disney, Warner Bros, Sony]; Intellectual integrity [recognition of the need to be true to one’s own thinking and to hold

oneself to the same standards one expects others to meet]; Organisational integrity: observing code of

conduct/ ethics; Territorial Integrity- our PM urged to respect territorial integrity during Russia- Ukraine war; Ecological Integrity; What you profess is what you practice- Gandhi; Integrity is doing the right thing even when no one is watching- C.S, Lewis. Shastri Ji- his

children were rarely allowed to use official car; Integrity certificate; Integrity columns in ACR; Case Study- IMF integrity hotline; 2021 Vigilance Awareness Week was observed from 26 October to 1 November, 2021 with the theme

“Independant India @ 75 : Self Reliance with Integrity”. Shinzo Abe [former Japanese PM] was man of integrity which also led to loss of his life; Lal Bahadur Shastri, was

arrested several times by British during India’s freedom struggle. Once Shastri Ji was granted permission to spend 15 days with his sick daughter, but sadly she died the day he reached home. He performed last rites & returned to prison, even though he could have stayed for duration of parole. Andy Roddick, Cristiano Ronaldo example; Gandhi ji once asked by mother of a child to give advise on eating less sugar to the child, he asked her few days and when he himself stopped eating sugar then he advised;

42. Emotional intelligence- Pentagon diagram mentioning Self awareness [Neeraj Chopra was aware his interest lies in javelin throw and worked and won Olympic medal, civil servants understand their duty, responsibility and commitment]-> self management-> Social skill-> empathy [towards weaker section]->internal motivation; Daniel Goleman; EI+IQ= Social Intelligence; Professor Satish

Dhawan; Kiran bedi in Yarvada Jail- prison reform; EI can be used to build more ethical society. Ed-Tech Startup CEO- Transformed education Sector during COVID; Ashish Tiwari Model: model of leave granting, posting management through software, green battalion for domestic violence in Mirzapur; Tina Dabi and her Bhilwara Model to fight COVID-19; Captain Cool [M.S. Dhoni]; Holding on to anger is like grasping a hot coal with the intent of throwing it at

someone else; you are the one who gets burned; Hitler exposed racial and nationalist sentiments; During second wave of Covid BMC Chairman IAS Officer Iqbal Chahal controlled health crisis in Mumbai through administrative efficiency; Balance interest: Mr. Arun Jaitley recused himself

from decision making in Vodafone 20k tax dispute case as he was consulted by Vodafone as a lawyer when he was not a minister; Motivation: rewarding the selfless citizen in society e.g. Swachhata Purushkar; Domestic violence, mental health issue- weak EI; Ed Sheeran famous singer hasn’t had a smartphone for 9 years [self awareness that smart phone is affecting his mental health]; not only escape tricky situations, but also

potentially turn them into opportunities. E.g. After a disaster, a public servant will not only make efforts to make things normal, but also make plans to prevent them in future; Vardhman worshipped as Mahavira because he was able to win over his emotions. Lack of EI: Will Smith slapping a comedian;

  1. Self Awareness: Know one’s strength and weakness E.g. Madras HC judge accepted that he was less not sufficiently informed of

LGBTQ community and learned about them before giving a verdict; Control one’s negative emotions. Eg. Lincoln used to write hot letters to himself control his anger; Demonstrate self-confidence; You have power over your mind – not outside events. Realize this, and you will find strength.” – Marcus Aurelius; Malala Yousafzai could not control the fact that she was shot by Taliban, but she chose to fight against them and be a symbol of girl’s education; Armstrong Pame IAS faced shortage of government funds, but he crowdsourced funds for the people’s road; It was not Alexander who conquered the world but Buddha;

  1. How to develop EI: understanding biology of EI- Happiness Chemicals [Dopamine, Oxytocin, Serotonin, Endorphins]; Blue Dolphin rule, rule of chess players, First international emotional intelligence conference in Ghana; Playing with dolls help children’s EI; Emotional Intelligence market is witnessing growth;
  2. Emotional Strength: Rule your feelings, lest your feelings rule you.” Large scale negativity [Covid 19] that manifests itself through domestic and gender-based violence; fear-driven reactions such as panic buying, disowning pets, communal divide, discourtesy towards frontline workers, indignities against migrants etc.;
  3. Awareness/ Knowledge/ Intelligence: duck-rabbit picture- we give meaning to the things;
  4. Attitude: Diagram: Triangle of success [Attitude, skill, knowledge]; Laws and rules change behaviour and attitude; C- Cognition (related to our

thinking, based on facts or beliefs) (mind component), A- Affective component (based on Emotions/feeling- person in form of Yam raj at signals, persuading people to wear helmets), B- Behavioural [based on actions]; Swachh Bharat Abhiyan- Cognitive – tell them about diseases, Affective/ Emotive- dignity of women, Behaviour- naming and shaming; U sagayam [Tamil Nadu Cadre]- “Reject bribes, hold your head high”; positive attitude during COVID helped patients recover early; Your attitude not your aptitude, will determine your altitude [Zig Zigler]; “The only disability in life is a bad attitude.” — Dale Carnegie; Keep your face to the sunshine, and you can not see the shadow. [Hellen Keller] [Positive attitude towards life despite being disabled]; The only thing worse than being blind is having sight but no vision. [Hellen Keller]; All Birds find shelter during a rain.

But Eagle avoids rain by flying above the Clouds.

Problems are common, but attitude makes the difference!

  1. Attitude formation: Classic conditioning-parents giving good values, Instrumental conditioning- Many attitudes are

formed by general desire to obtain rewards & avoid punishments [Sukanya Samruddhi yojana]; Observing and learning; Modelling; Social comparison; Don’t fertilise the rocks. First make people less resistant in receiving and processing information and then expect change in their attitude;

  1. Function of attitude- 4 functions [Daniel Katz] [Very

Knowledgable Eskimos Urinated]; Value expression: social identity. Attitude helps in experiencing the values one stand for. [U Sagayam]; Knowledge acquisition Function: helps in gaining knowledge to make better sense of surrounding; Ego defensive function: protect self identity, ego, self respect; Utility function: get rewards and avoid punishment [social drinking];

  1. Factors shaping political attitude: Family, Peer group, Educational institutions, Religion and caste, Workplace, Political parties;
  2. Political parties giving Freebies: Raising standard of living [Providing TV sets and home appliances]; Social capital formation, by focusing on education and health [Provision of free laptops]; Empowerment of weaker sections [Delhi government’s free bus ride for women]; Livelihood

opportunity [Giving sewing machines to women voters];

  1. Behaviour: Behaviour is attitude in action; Do unto others what you expect others to do unto you; Economic Survey 2018-19 mentions significance of behavioural economics:

Swachh Bharat Mission, Jan Dhan Yojana and the Beti Bachao Beti Padhao;

  1. Behaviour change is required: Use of contraceptives; Paying Taxes; Helping accident victims; Keeping environment clean;
  2. Attitudes expected form Civil Servants: Empathetic attitude; Democratic attitude [consensus based]; Rational attitude; Attitude of adhering to the principles of integrity, both financial and moral; Leadership attitude; Service oriented attitude; Selflessness; Courageous [Ayyaj Tamboli, district magistrate of Bijapur, doctor himself by profession, hospitals for adivasis in Maoist areas- such facilities are available in district government hospitals, which are not available in many big private hospitals];

Never say die attitude;

  1. Persuasion: Attempt to change the behaviour or an attitude of the person by giving rational argument and make the person to act in a manner which is against the original act; Maintenance of law and order: Helps in reducing conflicts. e.g. Riots, farmer protest; Obeying laws of land: wearing Helmet; hesitance towards COVID vaccination by getting vaccinated yourself; More than 1 million eligible citizens gave up their right to LPG subsidy;
  2. Duty: Gita: Nishkama Karma, work for cause not applause; [Case Study- be ready with at least 10 examples on this topic]—> What will be your course of action question; Saumya Pandey, DSP Surendra Singh

[Haryana] Mining, Compassionate Kozhikode, U Sagayam; APJ Abdul Kalam – “If you salute your duty, you need not salute anybody. But if you pollute your duty, you have to salute everybody.”; Satyendra Dubey, an Indian Engineering Service officer, working with the National Highways Authority of India, was murdered for seemingly exposing serious corruption in Golden Quadrilateral Highway construction project; joined Civil Services with the intention to serve the nation and not to gather wealth [Our lifestyle is our choice];

57. Leadership: Diagram-3 circles

[Attitude+aptitude+ skills]; ability of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal; Leadership of MS Dhoni ; Lord Rama laid out his plan accordingly and slowly worked towards executing it; Popatrao Pawar (Hiware Bazar Village in Maharashtra) (drought land to green village); A leader takes responsibility; Emotionally intelligent; – [Chhavi Rajawat, the youngest sarpanch in India,

[also MBA] her village Soda [Rajasthan], to make the villagers financially self-sufficient in order to lead a meaningful socio-economic life; Shinzo Abe: Japan’s Womenomics [getting more women in workforce [63-> 67%][2010-15]; Initiative by IAS Officer Smita Sabharwal

to control the drug menace in Warangal [Telangana];

58. Innovation: Sonam Wangchuk- “ice

stupas” [concept of artificial glacier, melts slowly and goes water to farmers] and “solar heated huts” put him on global radar for finding

sustainable solution in difficult terrain; IAS

Prashant Nair- Project “Tere mere beach mein”- for waste management in Kozhikode beach; 59. Courage: Courage is first of human virtues- Aristotle; Fortitude- [girl protesting against Eve teasing, Nadia

Murad’s journey from from rape survivor in Iraq to Nobel Peace Prize winner in 2018, Malala]; Child in school standup against the bullies; Napoleon- the world suffers not because of violence of bad, but because of silence of good; Be the change you wish to see in the world; Assertiveness- Nehru’s decision that India will remain non-aligned; Perseverance- continuous effort and determination. [Narmada Bachao Andolan and Chipko Movement];

  1. Fear: One is not wise, who fears for his life [Socrates]; Fear as negative- I could not pursue my dream of being writer or orator; fear as positive;
  2. Dedication: Remaining motivated even during adverse circumstances; Armstrong Pame- crowdfunded 100 km road in Manipur; Dashrath Manjhi- mountain man – 22 years; Confucius- It doesn’t matter how slow you go as long as you don’t stop; Sachin example; Colonel Sanders- KFC [man who started business at 65 and failed 1009 times before succeeding];
  3. Discipline [SC,MP]: Sachin Tendulkar as a 14 year old boy, he played 55 games without a break. He practiced for 2 hours, then played a game and then again practiced for 2 hours, before falling asleep on dining table – for 55 days continuously; coming late to office impacts office discipline and

morale; Greater swimmer Michael Phelps never missed a single swimming session in his teen days; Sachin never played a single cover drive in his 241 innings;

  1. Perseverance [CS, MA, RN]: Continued efforts to achieve something despite difficulties and failures; After just 1 run in first 6 innings, Marvan Atapattu made a historic comeback [span of 4 years, dropped from team played domestic and selected again and one of the greatest player of Sri Lanka]; Roger Bannister to Rafael

Nadal- triumph of greats may not be possible without pain;

  1. Equality VS Equity [NZ]: “Equality is treating everyone the same, equity is giving everyone what they need so that they can be treated as same.” New Zealand declares equal pay for male, female cricketers.
  2. Gratitude: Being thankful -> showing appreciation for kindness

66. Forgiveness [NM, MG]: Nelson Mandela; Gandhi-

weak can never forgive. To forgive is an attribute of strong;

  1. Humility [RT]: the quality of being modest and lowering one’s importance; an asset for self improvement; virtue for inner well being; frsutration and failures don’t have the same impact Ratan Tata started out working as a blue-collar employee for Tata Steel; accept contempt, being forgotten and disregarded;
  2. Prudence: Being wise in practical affairs; Aristotle- ran away when charged with impropriety. Gandhi- Struggletruce- struggle strategy;
  3. Probity [A,T, TH, LB, K, UP, PSS]: Strict adherence to highest moral principles and ideals [honesty and integrity]; Arjuna in Mahabharata war din not fight after sunset which was the rule; National commission to review the working of constitution; Principles of Kant- Will I be able to put it in front of God?, Will it withstand his scrutiny?; Social contract [Thomas Hobbes, John Locke]: public servants are bound to serve the people; Prevention of Corruption Act 1988- amended in 2018 included the act of offering gifts/ bribes to public servants as punishable offence; Accountability- Horizontal and Vertical. Supreme Court in Tansi Land deal case [2003], has recommended for selfimposed discipline, where person in public life are expected to maintain hand standard of probity; Rs. 5500 crore cost of election in UP in 2017, 8000 crore in 2022; Names of 469 Delhi police officials added to doubtful integrity list [vigilance]; Three portals by govt: PROBITY, THE SPARROW, SOLVE; M. Visheswaraiya;
  4. Honesty [SC, AK, LB]: being bold, impartial and unbiased given any circumstances or temptations; If a child breaks a ceramic bowl, and accepts it to her mother; Ashok Khemka’s crusade against corruption; Shastri Ji: Took a bank loan of INR 5000/- to buy a Fiat car, which his widow cleared after his sudden death from his pension. Sachin Tendulkar went back to pavilion without waiting for Umpire’s decision many times, when he knew he was out; Chambal dacoits are known to share their loot very honestly, but they lack integrity; Justice N Anand Venkatesh of Madras

High court decided to educate himself on LGBTQ matter before giving judgement;

  1. Conscience [D, B, LB, ES, B, K]: Dashratha; Bhishma;

Lal Bahadur Sashtri as a rail minister resigned; B R Ambedkar; Inner sense of right or wrong based on individual’s moral values; Edward Snowden, a contractor working for USA govt, revealed the mass surveillance program of USA; A person may fail to develop a correct conscience due to various reasons: ignorance, bad example from others, and enslavement to passions, arrogance; Conscience is

the guide, friend, and philosopher for a civil servant; Immanuel Kant: “In law a man is guilty when he violates rights of others. In ethics he is guilty if he only thinks of doing so”; Bihar college teacher returns salary of Rs. 23 lakh after no student turned up for a single class in last 33 months;

  1. Rights and duties: duty of police, fundamental duties.
  2. Truth [A,]: Anekanatavada- there is no one truth; Statement, ‘Ashwathama is dead’ is a fact but, it is not the truth in the context of when it is said; One’s truth concerning reality may be different from others’- But, facts continue to remain same; One who is not truthful is not trusted. He
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cannot be consistent in his thought, word and deed. Consequently he continues to be unhappy and spreads this unhappiness to society and the nation;

  1. Law [MG, S, MLK]: written or unwritten body of rules largely derived from customs, norms, ethics and formal enactments to govern the behaviour of people within a territory of a nation or between nations; An unjust law is no law at all- St. Augustine; Unethical but not illegal: Not showing up on time; Napoleon- the world suffers not because of

violence of bad, but because of silence of good; Socrates when condemned to death, did not flee the city; Mahatma Gandhi also argued that an unjust law is itself a species of violence; Martin Luther King: one who breaks an unjust law must do so openly, lovingly, and with a willingness to accept the penalty; Criminalizing

Homosexuality;

  1. Rule of Law [AVD, TH]: Socrates did not flee the city, even when he had an opportunity. It would have been violation of law; Concept of Ramrajya- based on Rule of Law; China not following international law; A nation is not just a territory. A nation is its people. Only when people progress, Nation progresses; Rule of Law as per Prof. A.V. Dicey: [SEL]: Supremacy of law: No one should be punished except for breach of Law, Equality before law: No one is above the law, Predominance of legal spirit: Constitution is the result of rights, not the opposite; World without laws will be nasty, brutish and short [Thomas Hobbes]
  2. Regulations: translate law into practice;
  3. Rules: part of laws; formulated by executive; more flexible;
  4. Transparency [TJ, 1, H]: Information is the currency of democracies [Thomas Jefferson]; Take all decision in open manner; Section 4 of RTI; 3 components [OAC]- Openness, accountability and communication;

Recommendations of 2nd arc: Repeal OSA, Oath of transparency for minister, 1% of all flagship program for five years for computerisation and record keeping; Honouring the honest- transparent taxation platform;

  1. Accountability [VS, LBS]: To take ownership for the outcomes of the action; UNHRC hold countries accountable for violation of human rights e.g. Sri Lanka; Moral Accountability- of getting vaccinated;

Accountability & efficiency are complementary to each other- e-Governance; Accountability during “work from home”; Vikram Sarabhai accepted failure of ISRO first mission without putting it on mission head (APJ Abdul Kalam); Geotagging of MPLADS projects in Solapur district of Maharashtra; Lal Bahadur Shastri resigned as a railway minister after train accident; government is accountable for welfare of people; Accountability- Answerability+ Enforcement+ Responsiveness;

  1. Tools to ensure accountability- Horizontal and vertical;
  2. Justice: Compensation given to African Americans for slavery & Jim Crow laws by US govt; Germany’s payment to holocaust survivors; S.Africa’s payments for apartheid regime; India’s own policy

of affirmative action are e.g where reparations were paid for historical wrongs; Avg income of richest 10% is about 9 times that of poorest 10% across OECD, up from 7 times 25 yrs ago [Distributive justice]; According to

Oxfam Report on inequality 1% of India’s population holds 77% of country’s wealth [2020]; Climate Justice [Climate refugees]; Gender Justice;

  1. Power [SDM, ]: Power lies in our ability to act. Given power to act one can turn it into a virtue & create social good for benefit of society & ourselves. However, our ability to not act – can turn into a vice; Misuse- UP SDM sent bulldozer when asked to pay for furniture by a trader; Service is not about feeling yourself privileged, rather it is all about making others privileged.

83. Ethical Dilemma [NS, FFNL]: For civil servants,

ethical dilemmas tend to arise from 3 critical relationships i.e. civil servants & political office holders; civil servants & citizens & intra-civil service; Allocation of limited resources amidst demand of different beneficiaries; Conflict between personal and professional life; Right vs Right ethical

dilemmas- Civil servant’s responsibility of being open & accountable to citizens versus that of adhering to oath of confidentiality; duty vs conscience; Modernity versus Traditions: E.g., discouraging slash-and-burn agriculture among tribals; Dutifulness versus wellbeing: Taking strict actions against cartels and criminals could bring threats to family, self and career. E.g., murder of Neha Shoree, a drug officer in Punjab; Urge to be part of society VS Discipline in services [commenting on common issues like protests]; Family VS State: Family first, state last approach of modern democracy;

  1. Ethical concern in private organisations: Insider training, Data manipulation, Giving bribe and taking bribe, adequate wages and hours of work, Tax evasion; Spicejet case of disabled person; Duty vs Conscience: Conscience should be preferred above duty only when it is certain; Green-washing;
  2. Conflict Resolution for civil servants [RK,]: Voice of Conscience;

Nishkama Karma; Dedication to public service; Gandhian Principles; IAS officer Rahul Kumar led by example in eating food cooked by a socially ostracized widow cook; Utilitarianism; Constitutional Morality; justice approach- decision must be based on standard of equity, fairness and impartiality; Gandhi’s talisman says that

whenever a person is in doubt, he should think whether her decision would empower or marginalize the poorest;

86. Role Model [CR, B, KJ, K, CG, E, D]: Cristiano

Ronaldo removed 2 Coca Cola bottles at press conference and asked people to drink water instead. This led to global beverage giant loosing billions of dollars in valuation; Bollywood celebrities promoting tobacco products in guise of Pan Masala; Promoting alcohol through surrogate liquor advertisements; Fake social media influencers; Kendall Jenner- failed to disclose their paid endorsements of the fraudulent Fyre Festival in the US; Deceptive marketing: Use of false and/or misleading information, such as “makes hair shinier’” or “makes teeth whiter”; Injustice to people as they suffer and companies enjoy profit; Goes against Kant’s categorical imperative; Human will be used as a mean to fulfill the greed of celebrities; Authority without responsibility; Health as common good is affected by advertisement of sin goods; Demonstration effect- other celebrities may get motivated to say yes to endorsing harmful products; State sponsored promotion: countries like Egypt and the United Arab Emirates using influencers to spread a positive image of them and cover the bad press over human rights issues; Parliamentary panel called for stringent provisions, including jail term for up to five years and penalty of up to Rs 50 lakh if a celebrity endorsed product misfires; Celebrities have an extra duty because public trust them and their words and action at face value; Reduce social

capital; Major Dhyanchand- who refused to be the coach of a foreign team inspite of financial hardship, instils values of love for nation;

  1. Advertisement [ASCI, S]: Fair and lovely to Glow and Lovely [more inclusive vision of positive beauty]; Advertising Standards Council of India (ASCI); #ColourMeRight [asks beauty brands to use models of all skin colours]; Antidiscrimination laws and

their strict implementation in India; Sensodyne fined Rs. 10 Lakh by central consumer protection authority over misleading adds [Recommended by dentist worldwide, world’s no.1 sensitivity toothpaste];

  1. Education: Diagram [NEP, CO, AL, EO, AS, TR, OBL, VM, MLK, MG, IK, MM, RSD, SC]- Triangle of success [Skills, Attitudes, Knowledge]; NEP 2020Constitutional Values [Seva, Ahimsa, Swachchhata, Satya, Nishkam Karma, shanti, tolerance, diversity, pluralism, righteous conduct, gender sensitivity, respect for elders, respect for all people and their inherent capabilities regardless of background etc.]; We need to focus on hidden curriculum [Setting up a garden, dignity of labour], within curriculum onion, as mentioned by NCERT in its moral education text book. Abraham Lincoln’s letter to the

teacher of his son make a person learn the value of self respect- He writes “Teach him to sell his brawn to highest bidders but never to put a price on his heart and soul”; Five educational olympic values- Joy of effort, Fair play, Respect of others, Pursuit of excellence, Balance between body, will and mind; Inculcate 7Cs; Amratya Sen- “Country of 1st boys.” Teacher give more importance to toppers of the class; Developing constructive hobbies; As, a soft clay

can be moulded easily into a fine pot in the same way a child gets its personality at a very tender age; Theodore Roosevelt

says that ‘To educate a person in mind but not in morals is to educate a menace to society’; People involved in terrorism such as Osama Bin Laden, Abu Bakr Baghdadi etc. are found to be highly educated people. Similarly, economic offenders like Bernie Madoff, Vijaya Mallya and Nirav Modi are also educated people; Martin Luther King Jr.: the goal of true education is intelligence plus character. Gandhi: Knowledge without character as one of the seven deadly social sins; Critical Thinking- socratic

questioning; Intellectual humility: All I know is that I know

nothing- Socrates; I Am Kalam movie:celebrates the

survival of the human spirit against overwhelming odds and highlights the need for underprivileged children’s education, aimed at inspiring the poor to educate their children; A thief with a gun may rob a bank, but a thief with knowledge and intelligence can rob a stock exchange; “Education is what remains after one has forgotten what one has learnt in school”- Mahatma Gandhi; “Children must be taught how to think, not what to think” – Margaret Mead; One child, one

teacher, one book, one pen can change the world- Malala Yousafzai; Competence Cycle Model of Learning; There is need to move from right to education to right to learning; Sa Vidya Ya Vimuktaye- That is knowledge which Liberates!; A school principal expressed that idea more eloquently in a letter he sent out on the first day of the school year. Dear Teacher:I am a survivor of a concentration camp. My eyes saw what no man should witness: Gas chambers built by learned engineers. Children poisoned by educated physicians. Infants killed by trained nurses. Women and babies shot and burned by high school and college graduates. So, I am suspicious of education. My request is: Help your students become human. Your efforts must never produce learned monsters, skilled psychopaths, educated Eichmanns. Reading, writing, arithmetic are important only if they serve to make our children more human; Ranjit singh Disale, a primary school teacher from Paritewadi village in Maharashtra’s Solapur district, won the USD 1 million annual Global Teacher Prize 2020 in recognition of his efforts to promote girls’ education and trigger a quick-response (QR) coded textbook revolution in India, he shared 50% prize money with his fellow finalists to support their “incredible work”; Respect paid by Sachin to his guru “Ramakant Achrekar”, by Eklavya to Dronacharya; recent

firing incidence in Maharshi Dayanand University [Rohtak];

89. Conflict of interest [ICC; KCD, CJI]: Indian cricket coach is not allowed to do

commentary; Karnataka high-court judge refused to

hearing a case of builder who tried to bribe him; Kishore chandra deo (2009) committee- for parliamentarians by making it mandatory to submit their ‘business interest’; “Prevention and Management of Conflict of Interest Bill” was introduced in 2012; Cooling Off period; Mr. Arun Jaitley recused himself from decision making in Vodafone 20k tax dispute case as he was consulted by Vodafone as a lawyer when he was not a minister; Appointment of former CJI to Rajya Sabha- Justice RM Lodha recommended 2 years cooling off period.

90. Corruption [DMA, BD, 13, PF, ARC, MG, SSB,

AS, UN, CS]: According to transparency international

“Corruption is the abuse of entrusted power for private gains.”; Discretion+ Monopoly- Accountability = Corruption; Professor Bibek Debroy and Laveesh Bhandari claim in their book “Corruption in India” that public officials in India may be cornering as much as US$13 billion [1.26% of GDP], through corruption in various forms; Doctor not reaching on time threatens life of a patient; Teacher not performing his duties, endangers the life of not only children but society as a whole; Police officers during riots non-performance—> Loss of lives; 2nd ARC gave 3 factors: Socialistic model of governance where regulation is done by government, Colonial legacy of unchallenged authority, Enormous asymmetry of power in our society; Corruption is paid by the poor-Pope Francis; India ratified UN Convention against corruption in

2011; 2nd ARC: Need a combination of internal and external approach; There is a higher court than court of justice and that is court of conscience. [Gandhi]; Men steel money when no one is watching – Woodrow Wilson. So We need to develop integrity which is doing the right thing even when nobody is watching; a

former Chief Secretary in Uttar Pradesh faced court trial, years after her acts; 2021 Vigilance Awareness Week was observed from 26 October to 1 November,

2021 with the theme “Independent India @ 75 : Self Reliance with Integrity”; Haryana Police DSP

Surender Singh Bishnoi- died on the spot while fighting with mining mafia, fought against illegal mining, did not fear to face the adversaries; One should not differentiate corruption of small magnitude; principle of honesty and beneficence

(Doing good to others); Your Actions today, decide your Future tomorrow; coming late to office which impacts

office discipline and morale; Chalta hai to Badal sakta hai attitude; Amakudari System [Japan]; Be the change you wish to see; Integrity a constitutional value;

  1. Implication of corruption: Establishment of kleptocracy – rule of thieves; Self-interest replacing social interest;
  2. Religion [PKS]: Latin word ‘religion’ which means to bind together; Divine Command theory; Gandhi ji’s concept of Ramrajya; One God know by different names- Jainism [Anekantvada], Sufism [Wahdat-ulWujood- unity of being]; Phool Walon Ki Sair [in old delhi] [symbol of communal harmony b/w Hindu and Muslim- floral offerings at Dargah and temple- Yogamaya Temple [Muslim offer fan]]; Covid- Langar by Gurudwaras;
  3. Code of conduct [1997, B, 1964, UN]: Legally enforceable standards of behaviour expected of those working in public service; foundation in Cornwallis code; Code of conduct created by pitahama in Mahabharat; Rules of procedure and conduct of business rules in Lok sabha and Rajya sabha; Civil services conduct rules 1964-

contain some general norms – can’t contest election, can’t show political affiliation; SC has adopted a code of

conduct for judges in 1997; UN adopted international code of conduct for civil servants;

  1. Code of Ethics: Preamble; 2nd ARC recommended a

Code of Ethics; COE is set of principles; Australia, Poland, Britain, New Zealand have code of ethics, India doesn’t;

  1. Work Ethics: Take your work seriously, your work is your contribution towards society, you are a carbonbased life form much like everyone else;
  2. Organisational Ethics/ Work Ethics: Ethics [value system guiding the functioning of an organisation] hard work, frugality, honesty,

perseverance and integrity that form the core of work ethic; “Real integrity is doing the right thing, knowing that nobody’s going to know whether you did it or not.”

Oprah Winfrey; “In any moment of decision, the best thing you can do is the right thing. The worst thing you can do is nothing.” Theodore Roosevelt; Administrative service- Sheela’s Param Bhushnam- Character is virtue; example of Delhi metro- emphasis on public orientation and excellence;

  1. Work Culture [CS, H2F, 996, FC, RR, SS]: [day to day functioning of an org.] Diagram- Iceberg Model [Visible- vision, mission; Invisible- attitude and feelings, trust, belief and values];

Compassionate capitalism-> companies salary increased at top level but decreased at lower level. Example of great work culture- You Tube, Tata, Google, Facebook; Good ethics is synonymous with good business; Herzberg’s two-factor theory of employee job satisfaction: “hygiene” [salary and supervision]-> reduce dissatisfaction and motivation [recognition and achievement-> productive, creative and committed]; 996 work culture of China; Flexi work culture- Indiamart;

Toxic culture of winning at any cost [Cricket Australia- Steve Smith ball tempering]- We pay you for winning; Ross Taylor former New Zealand player revealed that he was slapped by a Rajasthan Royals Owner when he got out for a duck in IPL;

  1. Corporate Governance [RN, WB, TATA, CCD, HUL, INFY]: Diagram showing a balance between social and economic goals; A set of system, processes and principles which ensure that the company is governed in the best interest of all stakeholders; Evolved after 1930

crisis ; Stakeholder capitalism: corporations are oriented to

serve the interests of all their stakeholders like customers, suppliers, employees, shareholders & local communities; Shareholder capitalism: believes in maximising profits for its shareholders. “If Ethics is poor at the top, the behaviour is copied down the organisation”- Robert Noyce; Unethical behaviour significantly increases the cost of doing business; Tata group of companies; Current:

Crises faced by YES Bank, IL&FS; HDFC insulated itself from NPAs due to effective corporate governance policy; Enhanced goodwill of the company: Infosys;

Continuous feedback loop: Hindustan Uniliver the most valuable FMCG; Poor corporate governance: Satyam, Sahara Scandal; It takes 20 years to build a reputation and five minutes to ruin it. [Warren Buffet]; Corporate Governance norms- Kotak Panel [separation of chairman and MD/CEO roles, at least half of the board director should be independent directors, minimum 1 woman independent director]; Jet Airways fell from glory primarily because its founder was not ready to leave his place on its board; At present, the Companies Act, 2013 and SEBI’s Listing Obligations and Disclosure Requirements (LODR) regulate the corporate governance in India; Volkswagen emission scandal; Malvika Hegde [revived Cafe Coffee day as CEO, after tragic demise of her husband, 31 March

2019- 7200 corporate debt dropped to 1731 crore on 31 March 2021> without increasing the price of coffee];

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99. Utilisation of Public funds [BP, FRBM, MGNREGA,MPLAD]: Public Fund Management System

(PFMS); FRBM Act; citizen charter and RTI Act; BharatPe sacks cofounder’s wife over misappropriation of funds; Rs. 935 crore misappropriation in MGNREGA funds in last 4 years; Auditing [wherever public funds are involved]; MPLAD was suspended

for short period [misappropriation of funds/ non-use];

100. Public Service: welfare oriented [tribal, women, children], Development

[Infrastructure, electricity], Regulatory

[traffic, environmental]; Service to mankind is service to God [Swami Vivekanand]; IAS Officer Saumya Pandey cut short her maternity leave and joined services few days after delivery, to serve society; Joseph Stiglitz- even certain times private officials [CEO of bank] can also be treated as public servant by the virtue that their decision are impacting larger section of society. Nolan committee [1994]- 7 values of public services [OHIO SAL- Openness,

Honesty, Integrity, Objectivity, Selflessness, Accountability,

Leadership]; Selflesssness [Bhagwat Gita- Nishkam Karma]; Treat incompetence as an abuse of office [Carol Lewis, 1991]; Smita Sabharwal- Fund your city project for infrastructure development; Saurabh Kumar- Lunch with collector to interact with tribal students;

  1. Selflessness [PK, TO, BA, AK, ]: Service orientation for the poor- Lakshmi Krishna [IAS] [Mission Sampoorna to address malnutrition [distributed 3 eggs and 2 milk packets to children daily for 3 months]- Bongaigaon [Assam]]; “The best way to find oneself is to lose yourself in the service of others- Gandhi”; Palam Kalyanasundaram- 74 year man donated his life saving of 30 crore to poor; Bhagavad Gita desires an administrator to be a combination of a raja and a rishi i.e. synthesis of selflessness and saintliness [no consideration for personal gain]; Tukaram Omble of Maharashtra

police tackled Kasab during Mumbai attack so that he couldn’t attack his fellow servicemen; Baba Amte; Mother Teressa treating Leprosy; Pothole Dada; ; Actor Amir Khan endorsed Incredible India campaign free of cost;

  1. Spirit of Service [SS, SP, ]: Complete dedication and commitment to the duty -> without expecting anything in return for service rendered; Nar Seva Narayan Seva;

Sanjukta Parashar [IPS] dealing with Bodo militancy; Swarochish Somavanshi, the District Collector of Umaria has given the AC units in his office to malnourished children in the scorching summer. Jonas Salk inventor of polio vaccine did not apply for patent;

  1. Individual liberty: Need for limiting it [IPCC-1.5 C target; Section 302 of IPC, sexual violence]; Public order [Saheen Bag Protest- SC- balance right to protest with right to movement]; National security- Data Protection laws; Prevent- chaos and anarchy; World without laws will be nasty, brutish and short [Thomas Hobbes]; Buddha’s Madhyam Marga approach;

104. Need of pragmatic shift in Bureaucracy: From

red tapism to red carpet: shift mindset in decision making; From rule based to goal based: performance based and real time monitoring; From rigidity to flexibility; From inaccessibility to responsiveness; From generalist to

specialisation; From secrecy to transparency;

  1. Vivekananda: He wanted:youth to have ‘muscles of iron’, ‘nerves of steel’ and ‘minds like thunderbolt’;
  2. Patriotism [DC, HS]: Dhyan Chand example, Bose left ICS; Harish Salve, who led India’s charge against Pakistan at ICJ, he charged a token fee of just Re 1 to defend

Kulbhushan Jadhav; Actor Amir Khan endorsed Incredible India campaign free of cost;

  1. Ethics in IR [Importance] [SNH, G, CBDR, FATF, SDG, MTCR, M, M, AC, R,]: 3 concentric circles [Sovereignty, national interest, humanity] there will always be limits to what can be done by any nation at any time; Kant – emphasised

cosmopolitanism – entire universe belonged to people – countries have artificial boundaries for restricting freedom; Covid 19 has revitalised Gorbachev’s ‘indivisibility’ doctrine in context of security, i.e. security is indivisible for there could be either equal security for all or none at all; Create moral pressure for the countries- CBDR-RC; Establish check and balances- MTCR; Provide space to countries to discuss and generate concerns: FATF; Holding government responsible: UN criticised Myanmar; Developing an institutional framework- SDG; Checking rise and growth of rogue nations and non-state actors. Kautilya- there are no permanent friends nor enemies, only permanent interests; Vashudhaiv Kutumbakam; Realpolitik- There is no authority, power rules; Liberalism- Countries should look

beyond its own interest, gain some and sacrifice some; Mahabharata- Being kind, humble and generous is not enough to live life.[Karna’s life]; In Geopolitics, it is not important whether you are right or wrong, what matters is whether you are weak or strong; no permanent foes or friends [USA signed Doha pact with Taliban]; strategic interest of a country [UAE and Bahrain signed the Abraham Accords ]; India continues to purchase cheap oil from Russia despite criticism from the West; USA, biggest exponent of the democracy, supported dictatorship regimes in South America and Africa;

  1. Ethics in IR [Good Examples or way forward] [PPP, CC, EM]:

Nationalism to Globalism- global initiative of Montreal protocol has been very successful, Parochialism to Tolerance- Singapore has been a good example of how the future society looks like; Greed is good paradigm to trusteeship model Ex: Compassionate capitalism as espoused by Richard Devos [Vedanta supplied oxygen from its plant for medical use, triple bottom line- Profit, people and planet]; Patriarchy to Gender Equity Ex: equal pay for equal work in its true sense with safeguards like maternity relief; Might is right to rules based world order Ex: WTO and such institutions’ legitimacy; Inequality to Inclusion Ex: Marrakesh treaty for VIPs, Oxfam’s efforts to reduce income inequality; Crime detection to crime Prevention Ex: community policing efforts like FRIENDS; Zero sum game to win-win solutions Ex. Elon musk’s act of giving up his patents so that humanity can win against climate change; Procedural democracy to substantive democracy Ex: be reflective of

sensitivities and sensibilities of the public; Intergenerational equity;

  1. IR downsides: failure to intervene in the Rwandan genocide; Refugee crisis; Institutional inertia [WTO,UNSC]; Rise of authoritarianism; Increasing international disputes;
  2. India and IR [51, 5S, P, NORMS]: Article 51

[Promotion of international peace and security];

Panchsheel- 5 principles of peaceful coexistence; Priorities under NORMS: New orientation for a reformed multilateral system- New opportunities for progress, Effective response to international terrorism, Reforming multilateral system, Comprehensive approach to international peace and security, Security and technology with a human touch; Five S Approach- Samman, Samvad, Sahyog, Shanti, Samridhi; Rise above narrow self interest and move towards enlightened self interests. Strength [economic and

military strength], peace [Peace should not be seen as just an absence of war, but it should be seen in the context of respect, tolerance for others & work based on mutual cooperation], security in IR is needed.

Case Study Section

  1. Common things to analyse in case studies: PESTAL- political, Economical aspect [efficiency], social

[women, children or other vulnerable section]; Technological aspect; Accountability; Violation of Rule of Law, Corruption, Integrity [Constitutional values];

  1. Kant’s categorical imperative: based on 4 principles:

a. Principle of universality: We should act in such a way that it can be made into universal law; b. Principle of Equality: These universal laws should be applicable to all including self. c. Humanism Principle: People should never be treated as means but they are end in themselves. d. Duty Principle: Acting right because it’s the right thing to do;

  1. War: Just war; War on ignorance, crime— [Just war]; India’s role in liberation of Bangladesh war; Vietnam role in unseating the pol pot khmer rogue regime;

Rama against Ravana; Pandavas against kaurvas; Russia-Ukraine War;

  1. Construction in tribal areas: Protecting rich cultural heritage is fundamental duty; Niyamgiri Hills Example;
  2. Essential qualities required from DM during Covid management [P,NL,]: Promptness in action- enforce lockdown and social distancing norms; Communicative and Persuasive- debunking myths and misinformation; Empathy and compassion; Networked leadership: bring relevant stakeholders like Media, Civil society; Out of Box thinking: quick thinking, creativity and innovation; Apt in the use of technology; Transparency and Accountability
  3. Measures to deal with COVID situation: Testing and containment, Communication and community engagement, Provide essential supplies, Ensure adequacy of resources- involve businesses, charitable institutions, Provide psychological and legal support: Tele-consultation and Victims of domestic violence should get legal and psychological support.
  4. Environment VS Development case study:

Development is essential in a developing country, will facilitate Economic growth, Generate employment, Aid tourism; Rights of slum dwellers; conduct a feasibility study that would involve experts sharing their opinion on the impact of the move on the local ecology; Compensatory Afforestation Fund Act, 2016; Char Dham Project; Environment protection vs National security;

  1. Illegal encroachment: Delhi High Court in one of its observations said that “will prayer reach God if you pray from illegal property?”;
  2. Artificial Intelligence: Chess playing robot goes rogue, breaks boy’s finger during tournament in Moscow;
  3. Population control: Consequentialist Perspective-If a coercive policy leads to more overall well-being then, on a welfarist approach, it is justified; Libertarian Grounds:justifies an action on whether the act violates anyone’s rights or not [women are deprived of their right of procreative freedom]; Feminist Perspective: implementation of population policies tends to target specific groups of people, such as women or the poor; 11. Encounter killings: culture of ‘mob justice’;
  4. Natural Disaster: Lack of trust between administration and citizen; Long term measures and short term measures;
  5. Discrimination and violence faced by SCs and STs/ racial discrimination [APPLE, CISCO, ]: Article 17 (abolition of untouchability), Protection of Civil Rights

(PCR) Act, 1955, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities (PoA)) Act, 1989; principles of equality, justice & fraternity; destroys social fabric; Manual Scavenging- Hyderabad Municipality deployed 70 mini jetting machines; against scientific rationality & principle of respect for human life & dignity; Apple explicitly prohibiting discrimination on basis of caste in its new employee policy [June 2020: California’s employment regulator sued Cisco Systems on behalf of a low-caste engineer who accused two higher-caste bosses of blocking his career]

  1. Shelter home and sex racket: Violation of law and order: like POCSO Act, 2012 and sections 375-377 of IPC;
  2. To maintain law and order: Section 144 of CrPC,
  3. Female Foeticide:
  4. Abortion: Pro-Life and Pro-Choice Group; bodily autonomy; one maternal death every 12 minutes majorly due to illegal abortions; “Abortion is profoundly anti women. Three quarters of its victim are women: half of the babies and all the mother” – Mother Theresa;
  5. Argument against abortion: Teleological perspective: if aborted a life would be taken, which is not a good consequence, for mother as well as society; Deontological perspective: duty of doctor to save every life (Hippocratic oath);child a gift of God; deprives the foetus of a valuable future;
  6. Mental health in Children:
  7. Animal Rights: Catalonia state has banned bullfighting;
  8. Tarnsfer: If everyone considers certain posting as hard postings, then who will serve in those capacities; ARC-II ‘ethics in governance’: honest officers are given hard postings as punishment while corrupt ones are rewarded; Ashok Khemka transferred 54th times in 29 years career [last in October 2021];
  9. Case Study: 1st and last: Virtue Ethics; 3rd: Kant; 4th: John Rawls; Contractarian theory: 2nd; IBC approach- Institute, Body, Constitution; Option: Moral High-ground; Neutral Point; Conflicting interest- I will frame committee; Fund resource, Vacancy, societal challenge- Golden mean between 3.
  10. Options in Case studies: Talk to the seniors and inaction or status quo meanwhile; Take swift action against wrongdoers; Initiate enquiry and involve stake holders, setup a committee;

24. Arguments in Support [EB, DP, PH]: Any

professional hazard will not deter my courage of conviction; Edmund Burke has said triumph of evil signifies that good man did nothing; Professional integrity; Indifference is the best breeding ground for corruption to grow, Rule of law will be upheld ; Darkest places in hell are reserved for those who do not act during moral crises;

  1. Arguments against: A lie is permissible when it is for greater good – Krishna to Yudhisthira;
  2. Course of Action/Measures [AS, MNP, RL]: Long Term and short term; Action priority chart by Divya Mishra;

Whistleblower act; Capability approach of Amartya Sen, to develop educational, physical and leadership capabilities among –; I will hold firm to the teaching of Aristotle, “Man is the social creature”. I will appeal to the reason and logic of the people; Objective procedure; Maslow need pyramid: Lower level – safety and basic needs, Middle order- social recognition, Higher order- self esteem and self realisation;

  1. Reasons for this course of action: Consensus driven; Utilitarian; Promotes social capital; involves civil society in whole life cycle;
  2. Possible Case studies: Environment; Corruption; Prevention of corruption act- not defined; EI; Attitude and

Aptitude; Child rights; Judicial overreach; Education/

Digital education; Medical; Tribes;

  1. Stakeholders: Active and Passive; Administrators, Women, Elderly, Transgenders, Children, Tribal, Dalits, Rural People, Urban People, Civil Society/NGOs
  2. Philosophies to be utilised in Case Studies [CG, JUSTICE, VIRTUE, 7S, M, CSR, DPSP, FD, FR, M, DC, JR, JSM, CC, GR, STA, MCM, BO, FOOD]:

Ethical universalism- Noam Chomsky “If something is right for me, it’s right for you; if it’s wrong for you, it’s wrong for me”; Moral Nihilism- nothing is right or wrong; philosophy of ‘Sarvodaya through Antyodaya’ (Development of all through development of the weakest); Dharma changes according to situation- Gita; Common good approach E.g. an affordable healthcare system, just law and order institution, clean environment. Certain conditions which everyone can enjoy; Justice approach: Justice – giving people what they deserve, giving people what is due to them- Aristotle, Plato, Socrates; Rights Approach: Rights on one person shouldn’t get into conflict of right of other people. Your right must be compatible to other people; Virtue Ethics: Plato’s cardinal virtues- Courage, Justice, Temperance and Wisdom; Aristotle [Distributive justice as virtue, courage is first of human virtues]; Socrates [knowledge as first virtue, everything starts with it]; Rama- duty was virtue; Teleology- Goal based approach. Did you win the fight?; Veil of ignorance (theory of justice); Just War Theory; Kant- Categorical imperative- The good thing is good in itself, Act in a manner that will become a law; Machiavelli- End justifies the means, Politics has no relation to morals; 7 Sins of Gandhi ji [PWKWPCS]- Politics without principles, Wealth without work, Pleasure without conscience, Knowledge without character, Commerce without morality, Science without humanity,

Worship without sacrifice; Gandhi JI’s concept of Sarvodaya, CSR, DPSP Article 39(b) and 39(c); Nishkama Karma’ (selfless actions)- “Be intent on action not on the fruits of action; avoid attraction to the fruits and attachment to inaction.” ; Right is right even if no

one is doing it; wrong is wrong even if everyone is doing it― Saint Augustine; In the end right or

truth always prevails as also conveyed by the motto Satyamev Jayate; Allowing an unethical act to continue despite its awareness can have adverse outcomes for humanity as a whole. For example, in the epic Mahabharata, inaction of Bhishma and Dhritarashtra when Draupadi was being manhandled in an open court eventually led to the Kurukshetra war; Divine Command Theory: morality is ultimately based on commands or character of God – morally right action is one that God commands or requires; John Rawl’s classical work, ‘A Theory of Justice (1971)’, emphasises on “equal opportunity principle”. While demonising prevailing inequality in society as unjust, ->irrespective of income inequality, social & economic positions be open to all;

Utilitarianism [Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill]: Maximum happiness for maximum no. of people, Morality based on the consequences of the human actions and not the action themselves; Deontological [Kant]: Concerned with actions themselves and not with consequences; Altruism: Action is morally right if the consequences of the action are more favourable then unfavourable to the everyone except the agent; Hedonism [Charvaka, Epicurus (Refined)]: Maximum pleasure for yourself pleasure is the highest good; Egoism [Greek Sophists, Hobbes, Nietzsche]: Maximum self-interest; Social Contract-

Constitution, Code of conduct, code of ethics,

Fundamental rights and duties; National Interests; Gandhian Tailsman ; Confucius golden rule- Do to others what you want others to do to you. Aristotle Golden mean; Vivekananda- society first, service to mankind is service to God; One must care for the world one

will not see – Gandhi (please remember this; any question on climate change, environment conservation, quote this); Locke:

certain fundamental individual rights that are so important that no govt. can override them; Harm principle of mills: In other words, a person can do whatever he wants as long as his actions do not harm others; Public Service: “Leave your footprints on the sand of time by your good work” – Vivekananda; Philosophy of

‘Sarvodaya through Antyodaya’ (Development of all through development of the weakest); Leonardo da Vinci, “Iron rusts from disuse; water loses its purity from stagnation… even so does inaction sap the vigour of the mind.” Golden Principles

[The Citizens admire you Your colleagues respect you Family proud of you];

  1. Supreme Court Judgements:SC in MC Mehta case said that public service is office of trust and has to obey public trust doctrine;
  2. Conclusion: Constitution of India provides safeguards

against X under Fundamental Rights, this shall be my guiding principle; Situation is a complex one where leadership along with willingness to assume responsibility is of shear importance; Barack Obama, “change happens when ordinary people do extra-ordinary things”. Humanity thrives on the back of people like —-. Fools multiply when wise men are silent; Making sure that most basic things that we take for granted like food, water; can also be taken for granted by everyone else in this world; I am because we are;