Governance Notes For UPSC

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What is Governance?

  • WB— Process through which authority is exercised in Mgt of a country’s S, E & P resources for development.

Stakeholders of Governance

Governance Notes For UPSC

Good Governance

It implies +ve attributes & values ass with quality of Gov (CRAP-TREE)

  • Consensus oriented (DNA approach)
  • Responsiveness— GRs of citizen, citizen orientation, citizen friendliness & timely service delivery
  • Accountability– Answerability + Enforcement
  • Participation— of all section in D.M, implementation & monitoring of Govt activities
  • Transparency
  • Rule of Law— Impartial enforcement of law–Independent judiciary, Impartial Police, Protection of HRs rights (Esp of minorities)
  • Effective & Efficient—Optimum & sustainable use of natural resources + Protection of Env.
  • Equitable & Inclusive—All members shd have a stake in Society’s wellbeing & do not feel excluded from society’s mainstream +Most vulnerable shd have opp to improve their wellbeing
      • Some sources include “Strategic Vision” as a 9th principle—A broad & long-term perspective

Indian Context

  • Kautilya, Gandhi’s “SU-Ra
  • Imperitive to realise India’s ‘tryst with destiny’— End poverty, disease, inequality
  • Creating conducive env for– Dev of Full human capibilities, Enjoy HRs, Promoting “Growth with Justice”
  • Can help in securing justice (RoL) , empowerment of people, efficient delivery of pubic services.

Dimensions of Governance in India—DARPG’s report “State of Governance – A framework of assessment”

Governance Notes upsc

Political Dimension—4 components:

  1. Exercise of franchise, Quality of elections
  2. Profile & conduct of Political Rep, Political Parties (Issue– CoP, Money & muscle power, Global Democracy Index– 53/165– “Flawed Democracy”)
  3. Functioning of Legislature (Issue– Decline of Parliament)
  4. Political Decentralisation (Issue– More in letter, less in spirit)

Legal & Judicial Dimension

  1. Law & Order and Internal Security
  2. Safeguard of basic rights
  3. Police Adm & Citizen‐friendliness of Police (Issue– Corruption & Politicisation in Police)
  4. Access to Justice & Judicial A/C (Issue–Delayed justice, Under trials, Lack of A/C in Judiciary)
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Administrative Dimension

  1. Corruption Perception, Vigilance & Enforcement (Issue–CPI–86th rank)
  2. Responsiveness & T/P in adm (Issue– Bureaucratic Delays, status-quoism, Red tapism)
  3. Citizen Interface and Engagement
  4. QoS Delivery

Economic Dimension

  • Macro-economic stability & create conducive climate for economic activity (Issue– Regional disparities)
  • Fiscal Governance, Business Env

Social & Env Dimension of Governance

  • Empowerment of vulnerable sections (Issues–Marginalisation & Social exclusion)
  • Role & quality of civil society & media.
  • Environmental Management

Good Governance Initiatives

  • Constituional–
    • Preamble (L,E,J,F), FRs, DPSPs, RoL
    • Watchdogs– CAG, UPSC, NCSC, NCST etc
  • Administrative
    • RTI, C.C, Sevottam, GRMs, e-gov
    • Social Audits
    • Anti‐corruption measures
    • Good Governance index— By Min of Personnel
  • Political
    • Decentralization—73rd & 74th CAA
    • Planning method for S-E Dev, Social Justice
  • Economic–
    • Ease of Doing Business measures
    • Labour Reforms
    • Taxation reforms
    • Welfare prog for weaker sections 
  • Minimum Govt, Maximum Governance—Citizen friendly & A/C adm
    • Simplification of procedures
    • Clustering of ministeries, Reducing Cabinet committees
    • Repeal of archaic laws/rules, Reducing Bureaucratic hurdles
    • Use of ICT– DBT, CSCs, PRSGATI,
    • Robust public GRMs
    • EoDB
    • &– Better People connect with Govt
  • Effective Governance– This idea was mooted by PM Modi
  • Ease of Governance– This idea recently mooted by Minister of Personnel
  • Main aim of e-gov– To increase ‘ease of living’ of people—essential for ‘New India’.
  • Democratic Governance– “Giving power to powerless & Voice to voiceless'”
  • Gandhi
  • Amartya Sen
  • A.V Dicey’s concept of Rule of Law
  • Substantive Democracy–> Welfare state & S-E Democracy (Ambedkar)– Equitable opp
  • Human Dev + Social safety nets for poor & marginalized
  • Strengthening state inst– Reforms in Parliament, Judiciary, Civil Services, Police
  • Forging new alliances with civil society & Govt-business Co-op
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Imp of Trust in Governance

  • Foundation of legitimacy of Govt
  • For maintaining social cohesion + increase confidence of investors
  • For success of Policies that depend on behavioural responses. Ex—Tax compliance, Vaccination.
  • Pillers of G.G, Electoral Processes, Civil society engagement etc affects Trust on Govt