Indian Foreign Policy: Determinants, Principles, Objectives of Foreign Policy | UPSC Notes

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Indian Foreign Policy upsc

Indian Foreign Policy

Changed Direction of IFP

S. Jaishankar—Policy Shifts in the “Modi Era”:

Building strong partnerships with like minded countries— Issue Based alignments.

Managing great power relationships

Pragmatic decisions based on risk-benefit calculations.

Willingness to use instrumentality of military power.

Defense, Business, investment now integral part of diplomacy. Stronger drive in implementation.

Soft power.

Diaspora card being played more effectively.

Jaishankar outlined India’s new quest for “strategic autonomy”—external complement to “Atmanirbharata”

IFP in Post covid era

Shivshankar Menon—IFP strategy must change in post pandemic world—Bcz of— Retreat from globalisation

Rise of authoritarianism

Fundamental shifts in BoP

-ves of FP under Modi

Happymon Jacob—

  1. India-centric inst like SAARC & NAM have been sidelined by our own conscious efforts
  2. NA is passé, ‘neighbourhood first’ is falling apart & multi-alignment is increasingly looking like a fantasy—India’s post-normative foreign policy is in a shambles Amb T.P Sreenivasan—on NSG
  3. Membership of NSG is a mirage— India joining NSG is like Russia joining NATO bcz NSG was set up originally to deny India any nuclear material
  4. Remove the cobwebs of fairy tales that shroud IFP— like India will get into UNSC & NSG, Exaggerated faith in the value of soft power & the theory that there is no point in nursing constituencies such as NAM

C.Rajamohan— Whether Delhi likes it or not, a “second Sun” (China) — much brighter than India — has risen in the skies of the Subcontinent.

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Lessons that can be learnt history of IFP—

Need for greater realism—change its image of a reluctant power.

Need for Strong economy—China’s assertiveness today is derived from its economic


Need for Multi alignment—Due to complex interdependence—To widen spce for

Diplomatic Manouvering

Need for Greater Risk—More assertive participation in events of geopolitical sig As Tagore said, you can’t cross sea merely by standing & staring at water.

Need for reading into things right