India’s Manufacturing Sector – Issues, Challenges & Government Initiatives | UPSC Notes

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Integrated Steel Plants in India : 

—> Industries using wt-losing raw mats are located where raw mats are located eg : Iron & Steel + Sugar cane

TISCO :

Tata

Location :

➤ 240 km away from Kolkata ( Port for steel export ) ; lies close to Mumbai-Kolkata railway line

Raw Mats :

➤ Water                   ➜ R. Subarnarekha & Kharkai

➤ Iron Ore               ➜ Noamundi & Badam Pahar

➤ Coal                     ➜ Joda mines in Orissa

➤ Coking Coal        ➜ Jharia & W.Bokaro coalfields

IISCO :

Indian Iron

Location :

➤ Plants at – Hirapur, Kulti, Burnpur (WB) ; Located on Kolkata-Asansol Railway line 

Raw Mats :

➤ Water                  ➜ R.Barakar ( trib of Damodar )

➤ Iron Ore              ➜ Singhbhum ( Jharkhand ) 

➤ Coal                    ➜ Damodar coal fields (Raniganj, Jharia & Ramgarh) 

VISL :

Visvesvaraiya

Location :

➤ Mysore

Raw Mats :

➤ Water                   ➜ R.Bhadravati

➤ Iron Ore               ➜ Kemangundi in Bababudan Hills

➤ Coal                     ➜ None ; Hydro from Jog Falls Hydel Power Proj

ROURKELA :

 

Location :

➤ Sundargarh district of Orissa in collab with Germany (1959)

Raw Mats :

➤ Water                   ➜ Koel & Sankh rivers

➤ Iron Ore               ➜ Sundargarh & Kendujhar

➤ Coal                     ➜ Jharia ( Jharkhand )

➤ Power                  ➜ Hirakud Power

BHILLAI :

 

Location :

➤ Durg district of Chattisgarh with Russian colab (1959) ; Lies on Kolkata-Mumbai route

Raw Mats :

➤ Iron Ore               ➜ Dalli-Rajhara mine

➤ Coal                    ➜ Korba & Kargali coal fields

➤ Water                  ➜ Tanduladam

➤ Power                 ➜ Korba Thermal Power Station

➤ Bulk of steel goes to Hindustan Shipyard at Vishakhapatnam

DURGAPUR :

 

Location :

WB , with UK collab (1962) ; Kolkata-Delhi railway route

Raw Mats :

➤ Iron Ore                 ➜ Noamundi

➤ Coal                      ➜ Raniganj & Jharia Coal belt

➤ Power & Water     ➜ Damodar Valley Corp

BOKARO

 

Location :

Russian Collab 1964

Raw Mats :

➤ Principle of min transport cost by creating Bokaro-Rourkela combine

➤ Iron Ore                ➜ Rourkela region & wagons on return take coal to Rourkela

➤ Water & Power     ➜ DVC

  • 3 New Steel Plants : Vizag Steel Plant ( Vishakhapatnam AP ) + Vijaynagar Steel Plant ( Karnataka ) + Salem Steel plant ( TN )
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Cotton Industry in India : 

COTTON :

 

Prop :

➤ India was famous worldwide for : muslin, calicos, chintz, fine cotton cloth

➤ British exported raw cotton to Manchester & sold back in India ; Swadeshi boycott gave impetus to Indian cotton

➤ India lost most good quality cotton growing areas to Pak ( 423 to 409 )

➤ Cotton Textile div into 2 sectors : Org & Unorg sector

➤ Decentralized sector includes cloth prod in handlooms (Khadi) & powerlooms

➤ Cotton is ”pure” raw mat, doesn’t lose wt in manufac process —> hence other factors dominate location

Location : 

➤ Maj Centre of Ct Textile      ➜ Ahmedabad, Bhiwandi, Solapur, Kolhapur, Nagpur, Indore & Ujjain

➤ Lead Ct prod States           ➜ Mahar, Guj, TN || WB, UP, Karnatak, Punjab

➤ TN                    ➜ Mills – Coimbatore (1/2) , Chennai, Madurai, Tirunelveli, Tuticorn, Thanjavur, Ramanathapuram & Salem

➤ Karnataka        ➜ Davangere, Hubli, Bellary, Mysore & Bangalore

➤ AP                    ➜ Telanganga region , Hyd, Secunderabad, Warangal

➤ UP                    ➜ Kanpur, Modinagar

➤ WB                   ➜ Hugli , howrah, Serampur

Sugar Industry in India : 

SUGAR :

 

Prop :

➤ 2nd most imp agro-based industry ; Khandsari & gur also prepared from sugarcane

➤ India largest prod of both sugarcane ( 8% of world)

➤ Employment for > 4 L persons directly and many farmers indirectly ; Seasonal industry 

Location : 

➤ Wt losing crop ; Ratio of ( Sugar : Sugarcane ) = 9-12% dep on variety

➤ Sucrose content begins to dry during haulage, better recovery if crushed w/i 24 hrs of harvesting

     —> Hence Factories located w/i cane prod regions

➤ Mahar    ➜ Lead Prod (1/3)

➤ UP         ➜ 2 belts : Ganga Yamuna doab (Saharanpur, Muzzafarnagar, Meerut, Ghaziabad) + Tarai ( Kheri Lakhimpur, Basti, Gonda, Gorakhpur, Bahraich )

➤ TN          ➜ Coimbatore, Vellore, Tiruvanamalai, Villupuram, Bellary, Mandya

➤ Coastal   ➜ E.Godavari, W.Godavari, Vishakhaptnam 

➤ Bihar       ➜ Saran, Champaran, Muzzafarnagar, Gaya

➤ Haryana  ➜ Yamuna nagar, Rohtak, Hissar & Faridabad

Petrochemical Industry in India : 

Petroch

 

Prop :

➤ 4 Subgroups : (1) Polymers (2) Synthetic Fibres (3) Elastomers (4) Surfactant intermediate

➤ Mumbai : hub of Petrochem indus

➤ Cracker Units : Auraiya (UP), Jamnagar Gandhinagar Hajira (Guj), Nagothane Ratnagiri (Mahar,) Haldia (WB), Vishaka (AP)

➤ Org in Petrochem Indus : 

(1) IPCL : Indian Petrochemical PSU ; manufac & distri of various Petrochemicals

(2) PCL : Petrofils Coop Jt Venture with Weaver Coop Societies ; Prod Polyster filament & Nylon @ Vadodora Nalhadri (Guj)

(3) CIPET : Central Insti of Plastic ; imparting training in Petro Chem industry

Location : 

➤ Major Plastic Prod Plants @ : Mumbai, Barauni, Mettur, Pimpri

➤ Industries Manufac nylon & polyster yarns : Kota, Pimpri, Mumbai, Modinagar, Pune, Ujjain

➤ Acrylic staple : Kota , Vadodara

Industrial Development in India

==>> Industrial Development in India : LPG = ( Liberalisation + Privatisation + Globalisation )

  • Dimensions of Policy : 
    • abolition of industrial licensing system ( except 6 : security, strategic & envt )
    • free entry to foreign tech
    • foreign investment policy
    • access to capital market
    • open trade 
    • abolition of phased manufac progs
    • liberalised industrial location prog
  • Globalisation : 
    • Means integrating eco of country with eco of world —> G&S move freely from one nation to another
    • Thrust to (inc domestic & external compt) through extensive (app of market mech) & facilitating dynamic (relationship with foreign investors & suppliers of tech)
      • Opening economy to FDI in India
      • removing restrictions & obstacles to entry of MNC in India
      • allow indian companies to enter into foreign collar & joint ventures
      • Import lib progs : switching over from quantitative restrictions to tariffs in first place & bringing doen import duties 
      • Opt for exchange rate adjustment for promoting export
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Major Industrial Regions in India :

Major Industrial Regions in India upsc
  1. Mumbai-Pune Region
  2. Hugli Region
  3. Bangalore-Chennai Region :
  4. Gujarat Regions 
  5. Chotanagpur Region
  6. Vishakhapatnam-Guntur Region :
  7. Gurgaon-Delhi Meerut Region : Light & Mkt oriented
  8. Kollam-Thiruvanathapuram Region : Agro Prod Processing & market oriented Light industries 

Planning 

  • 2 Approaches to Planning : 
    • Sectoral Planning : Deve of various sectors of Eco 
    • Regional Planning : To reduce regional imbalance (over space) in Deve
  • Target Area Planning :
    • To arrest accentuation of regional & social disparities 
    • Eg of “Target Area” Progs : ( Command, Drought Prone, Desert, Hill ) Area Deve Programme
    • Eg of “Target Group” Progs : Small Farmers & Marginal Farmers Deve Agency ( SFDA & MFDA )
  • Hill Area Deve Prog : 
    • During 5th yr plan covering 15 (hilly) districts of Uttarakhand, Assam, WB, TN
    • Aimed at harnessing indigenous resources of hill areas th. deve of Horticulture, Plantation agro, Animal husbandry, poultry, forestry
  • Drought Prone Area Prog : 
    • Emphasis on Irrig projects, Land Deve progs, Afforestation, Grassland deve & creation of basic Rural Infra
    • Prog confined to —> deve of Agro & allied sectors
    • Major focus         —> Restoration of Ecological Balance (betw water, soil, plants, animals & human)
    • Inc Popu              —> utilise Marginal lands for agro —> causing eco degradation —> need to create alternative employment oppor
    • Other strats         —> adoption of integrated Watershed deve approach at micro-level
  • Integrated Tribal Deve Prog ( Bharmaur Region ) :
    • Aim : improving quality of life & narrowing gap in level of deve betw Bharmaur & rest HP
    • Priority in deve of Transport & Comm, Agro & Allied activities 
    • Contri in deve of Infra in terms of school, healthcare, potable water, roads, comm & electricity
    • Social Benefits : inc in literacy rate, sex ratio, dec in child marriage
    • Transformation from agro-cum-pastoral ( Transhumance ) economy to growing pulses & cash crops
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Sustainable Development : 

  • Philosophy : Care of Ecological + Soc + Eco aspects of deve during present times & conservation of resources to enable future gens to use resources
  • Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area :
    • Total Command Area    : 19.63 L ha ( 70% Flow Syst at Right Bank + 30% Lift System at Left Bank )

Stage-1 Command Area (5.5 L ha)   = Ganganagar, Hanumangarh & N.Bikaner

Stage-2 Command Area (14.1 L ha) = Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Barmer, Jodhpur, Nagpur & Churu districts

  • Canal Irrig transformed Ecology, Eco & Society  :
    • Adv :
      • Aval of soil moisture for longer time
      • Various Afforestation & Pasture Deve progs under CAD —> resulted in greening of land
      • Agro & Livestock : inc in cultivated area & intensity of cropping
      • Intensive Irrig —> Replaced Jowar, Bajra, Gram with Rice, Wheat, Groundnut, cotton
      • Reducing Wind Erosion & Siltation of Canals
    • Disadv : Twin envt problem of water logging & soil salinity

Cement industry in India

Cement Industry — India is the 2nd largest producer of Cement in the world, after China 

Location Factors of Cement industry

  1. Raw Material — heavy, low value and weight losing material — depends on LS, silica, alumina — MP, RJ, AP 
  2. Power and electricity — grinding, clinkersation of LS
  3. Coal — 40% of the total cost. Availability of coal and power → conc. @East Coast 
  4. Availability of road and railways — Logistical support is very important 
  5. Distance from Port for exports — Cement from Gujarat is sent to Middle East and from East coast to SEA 
  6. Location near market — reduces transportation costs

Problems in Cement industry

  1. Low per capita consumption 
  2. Glut situation due to mismatch in demand-supply— loss of market prices
  3. Shortage of domestic coal and increased import of coal
  4. Inadequate railway wagon available
  5. Non favourable taxation rules
  6. Export is not promoted
  7. Environmental concerns — fly ash  

Industry location factors list

  1. Availability of raw material 
  2. Availability of skilled and unskilled labour 
  3. Availability of cheap labour 
  4. Availability of competitive electricity 
  5. Connectivity to transport networks 
  6. Suitability to land and climate 
  7. Environmental aspects 
  8. Waste Disposal architecture 
  9. Availability of capital and credit 
  10. Government policies and state politics — capital intensive, flexible labour laws 
  11. Availability of water 
  12. Proximity to — market, ports