Major Sea Ports in India – UPSC Notes

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Major Sea Ports in India – UPSC Notes

India’s major seaports

• India has 13 major seaports (12 that are owned by the government and 1 that is privately owned) and 205 minor and intermediate ports that handle a lot of traffic. Ports are very important to the growth and progress of a country. Compared to other types of transportation, ports are the best in terms of cost, volume, and ease of use.

• About 95 percent, by volume, and 70 percent, by value, of all of India’s foreign trade is done through shipping.

All of India’s ports are in the nine coastal states of Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Goa, Gujarat, West Bengal, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. India’s long shoreline is one of the largest pieces of land that stick out into a body of water. Thirteen of the country’s biggest ports handle a lot of goods and container traffic.

• The ports of Mumbai, Kandla, Mangalore, JNPT, Vadhavan, Mormugao, and Cochin are on the west coast.

The ones on the east side are at Chennai, Tuticorin, Visakhapatnam, Paradip, Kolkata, and Ennore. The last one, Ennore, is a public company that is listed with the government, which owns 68% of it. Port Blair is in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Mumbai is India’s biggest natural port.

As you know, India has a federal government, and its constitution says that both the Central government and the State governments are in charge of maritime travel. The central government’s Shipping Ministry is in charge of the major ports. The nine coastal states of Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal each have their own departments or ministries in charge of the smaller and intermediate ports.

List of Important Ports in India

1. Chennai Port:

Formerly called Madras Port, Chennai Port is India’s second biggest container port, after Mumbai’s Nhava Sheva (JNPT). It’s the biggest port in the Bay of Bengal.

• It is a man-made port that can be used in any weather and has wet docks.

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• Because of the port, Chennai became known as the “Gateway to South India.”

2. Kochi (Cochin) Port:

Cochin Port or Kochi Port is a major port on the sea route between the Arabian Sea, the Laccadive Sea, and the Indian Ocean. It is in the city of Kochi and is one of the biggest ports in India. It is also the first place in India to change ships.

Kochi Port in Kerala is an example of a tidal port. The port is on two islands in the Lake of Kochi, Willingdon Island and Vallarpadam, near where the Fort Kochi river empties into the Laccadive Sea.

It is one of the main places where ships are made. It exports spices, tea, and coffee.

3. Ennore Port (Kamarajar Port Ltd.):

This is India’s first port that is owned by a public company and its 12th major port.

• It is about 24 km north of the Chennai Port, on the Coromandel Coast.

• Iron ore, coal, goods made from oil, and chemicals are traded.

4. Kolkata Port:

The Port of Kolkata, also called Syama Prasad Mookerjee Port Trust, is India’s only major river port. It is in the city of Kolkata, in the state of West Bengal, about 203 kilometres from the sea.

It is the oldest port in India and was built by the British East India Company. It is a freshwater port, so the saltiness of the water does not change.

Diamond Harbour is known for its two docking systems, Kolkata Dock on the eastern bank of the river Hooghly and Haldia Dock on the western bank.

• Trade: Jute, tea, Coal, Steel

5. Kandla Port

Kandla Port is a harbour and town in the Kutch district of Gujarat state in western India. It is close to the city of Gandhidham and is on the Gulf of Kutch. It is one of the most important ports on the west coast.

It is called Tidal Port, and it was built after Karachi Port was given to Pakistan after the Partition.

• It also makes Mumbai Port less crowded.

• Largest port in terms of how much goods it can handle.

• It has been recognised as a free trade zone.

6. Mangalore Port

Mangalore Port is a deep-water, all-weather port that sends iron ore. It is the only major port in Karnataka, which is a coastal state.

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7. Mormugao Port

Mormugao Port is located at the mouth of the river Juari. It is a natural harbour. It was named a major port in 1963. It is India’s most important port for shipping iron ore.

8. Mumbai Port Trust:

• Largest natural port and harbour in India; Shivaji’s navy used this port site in the past; has 3 enclosed wet docks: Prince’s Dock, Victoria Dock, and Gateway Dock.

Indira Dock is India’s largest port.

• Jawahar Dweep is an island in the harbour that is used to handle Crude and oil products.

9. Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT)

• Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT), also known as Nhava Sheva (Navi Mumbai), is the first big port in India to become a 100% Landlord port, with all berths being run on the PPP model.

The name “Nhava Sheva” comes from the names of two towns that used to be there.

• The largest man-made port and India’s top container port.

• It opened in 1989, and in the 30 years since then, it has changed from a terminal for bulk goods to the best container port in the country.

It is on the eastern side of Mumbai Harbour, near Elephanta Island, and can be reached by Thane Creek. This port is the end of the Indian Railways’ Western Dedicated Freight Corridor. It has state-of-the-art facilities that meet all international standards, a friendly atmosphere, and good rail and road connections to the rest of the country.

• It can currently handle ships with a capacity of 9000 twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs). After the upgrade, it will be able to handle ships with a capacity of 12200 TEUs.

• Trade: textiles, sports equipment, carpets, drugs, chemicals, etc.

How does Landlord Port work?

• In this plan, the port authority is run by the government and serves as a landlord. Private companies run port operations, which mostly involve moving cargo.

• In this case, the port is owned by the port authority, but the infrastructure is rented out to private companies. These companies build and keep their own structures and put in their own equipment to handle cargo.

• In exchange, the port owner gets a cut of the money made by the private company.

Model of Service Port?

• In service ports, the port authority is in charge of managing and running the port.

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• The port provides transportation services, warehouses, cranes, and skilled workers or labourers. The port authority is in charge of building the facilities and superstructure, as well as hiring workers.

• Even if the port authority does what’s best for the people, the state or government still owns the whole port.

10. Vadhavan Port:

This will be India’s thirteenth largest port.

• When this port is finished, India will have one of the 10 biggest cargo ports in the world.

• Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT) will be the lead partner in a special purpose vehicle (SPV) that will be used to carry out the project. This SPV will have equity involvement of at least 50%.

• The port will be built on the idea of a landlord.

• The JNPT has planned for Vadhavan port to be a “All Weather, All Cargo” satellite port, which will make it easier to handle deep draught ships and bigger ships.

11. The Paradip Port

It was the first major port to open after India got its independence. It is at the point where the Mahanadi River meets the Bay of Bengal. It exports iron, aluminium, and a lot of iron ore to Japan.

12. The Tuticorin Port

It is now called the V.O.Chidambaranar Port. It is a man-made port in the Gulf of Mannar.

• It’s known for fishing for pearls in the Bay of Bengal, so it’s also called “the pearl city.”

• Trade: coal, salt, petroleum goods, and fertilisers.

Visakhapatnam Port: This port has a natural harbour and is the second biggest port in terms of the amount of cargo it handles.

• Port is in the middle of the distance between the Chennai Port and the Kolkata Port.

• Iron ore is sent from India to Japan through the port with the deepest water. There are things that can be used to make and fix ships.

• Iron ore, coal, alumina, and oil are all traded.

Port Blair:

The port was linked to the rest of India by ship and by plane. This port is between two foreign shipping routes, to Saudi Arabia and to Singapore in the United States.