Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW) Sites | UPSC Notes

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Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW) Sites

Taxila

• Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

• In 600 B.C., Gandhara was the capital of the kingdom.

• When the Bhir mound was dug up, its NBPW nature became clear.

• An important place for trade and a part of Uttarapatha.

• Part of the Silk Road, which linked China to the rest of the world.

It was an important learning place because it was home to the oldest university in the world, Taxila University. It was also at the centre of three important trade routes, from North India to West Asia to Central Asia. Fahein and Hieun Tsang both went there.

Sravasti

• Sravasti, U.P. near Rapti river. The main city in North Kosala.

• Sherds of NBPW pottery, black slip ware, Plain Grey Ware, and PGW.

• The first homes were made of wattle and daub, but burned bricks were used later. Even fortifications made of burned bricks show how they planned to defend themselves.

• Objects made of copper and iron, like arrowheads and copper decorations, show that they made progress in metallurgy.

• The finding of eye beads made of layered glass and agate and a terracotta disc with the Swastika and sun symbols are important.

• The time period began around 600 B.C.

Kaushambi

• U.P. on the side of the Yamuna River. The centre of the Vatsa kingdom.

• Settlement: A well-planned city with roads and side streets made of brick. In the beginning, people lived in houses made of wood, and later, they lived in houses made of burned bricks. Even the defensive wall had rooms for guards and towers for protection.

• Most tools, guns, and other artefacts were made of iron.

• Other artefacts were made of bone, stone, glass, gold beads, figures of people and animals made of terracotta, and so on.

• It was an important stop along the old trade route from 600 B.C. to 550 A.D.

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Prahladpur

• Chandauli,U.P

• Different Mahajanpada coins were found. Also, coins from the Mauryan era with a hole punched in them were found.

• Figurines of people and animals made of terracotta were found.

• Swastika and flower designs were often found on terracotta discs.

• Metal and bone items were among the artefacts.

Pataliputra

• Found to be present-day Patna, Bihar.

• The Maurya Empire, the Sungas, and the Guptas all made it their capital.

• Udayin moved the capital of the kingdom of Magadha from Rajgriha to Pataliputra.

• Great place for business and trade.

• Megasthenes told a lot about how great this city was.

• The Third Buddhist Council was held here, not the Second Buddhist Council or the First Jaina Council.

Vaishali/Kundagrama

• It is in the Bihar district of Vaishali.

• In the sixth century BCE, Basarh in North Bihar was the capital of both the Lichchhavis and the Vajji confederacy.

• First Republic in the world.

• Time: between 500 and 150 B.C.

• In 599 BCE, Mahavira was born at Kundagram.

• This is where the Second Buddhist Council met.

• Where Buddha gave his final sermon.

• Also, the Shishunaga dynasty’s centre.

• Vaishali is known as the home of the great Indian courtesan “Amrapali.”

• The Fahien and Hieun-Tsang report talks about it.

• Ashokan column with a single lion on top.

Rajgir

• There are five hills around the Bihar area of Nalanda.

• First capital of Magadha Mahajanapada under Haryanka dynasty.

In these Saptaparni caves, the first Buddhist council met.

• An important place for Buddhists, Jains, and Hindus to go on journey.

• On the Uttarapatha network.

• Known for Amarvana, which is Jivaka’s medicine cabinet.

• Black and grey pottery made by NBPW.

• Burials: Half-oval pits with elliptical sides and short funnels. From 500 B.C. until 100 A.D.

Prabhas-Patan

• Junagadh, Gujarat.

• Time frame: about 400 B.C. Around 100 A.D., the NBPW phase began.

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• An NBPW phase stone fortification, skin rubber with writing on it, NBPW Sherds, BRW ivory objects, clay gamesmen, and a gold bead were found.

Amaravati/Dharanikota

Guntur, A.P., is on the right bank of the Krishna River.

• Period IB is a part of NBPW.It also shows BRW, or Red and Black ware, is there.

• Plain leaf earring in good shape. Another important find was a rectangle-shaped piece of violet glass seal with a lion’s head in relief. This seal dates back to the first century B.C., based on the way it was made.

Chandraketugarh

Archaeological proof of NBPW includes ring wells, terracotta beads, and coins with holes punched in them.

Some of the coins have ships on them, which suggests that they were used for trade by sea. Other things found include bone points, dice, clay bails, a terracotta plaque with an elephant on it, etc.

• Starts in the fourth century B.C.

• Important terracotta object production site.

Tamralipti or Tamluk

• In the Midnapore area of West Bengal, near the mouth of the Ganges River.

• Largest seaport and trading centre in Eastern India.

• The discovery of a “roulette wave” and “red polished Roman ware” shows that trade agreements were made.

• Figurines and plaques made of clay, coins, and beads made of semiprecious stones are some of the things that archaeologists have found.

Sisupalgarh

• Bhubaneswar, Odisha.

• Its old name was Tosali, which was written on a tablet by the Ashokan people. Kalinganagar was the capital of the Kharvela kingdom.

• Orissa’s first protected centre.

• It happened between the 3rd century BC and the 4th century CE.

• NBPW, Rouletted ware, and BRW pottery.

• Finding iron caltrops is interesting.

• Other Artefacts: Beads made of clay and stone, figurines and coins made of terracotta, and important tools and weapons.

Two coin moulds found there show that it was a place where coins were made in the past.

Ropar

• A site for both PGW and NBPW.

• NBPW: from -600 B.C. to 200 B.C. grew into the town heart.

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• In the ill time, 450 pieces of NBPW were found. It was a luxury item, as shown by the fact that riveted pots were found along with punch-marked coins and cast copper coins with no writing on them.

• Brick and stone homes that had been burned down were found.

Hastinapur

• Meerut district, U.P

• A BRW, PGW, and NBPW site that is described in Mahabharat (Capital of Kuru) and Purana.

During this time, the city was well-built and had a well-thought-out drainage system. Silver and copper coins with punch marks on them show that the economy was doing well, as do clay figures of people and animals and beads made of semi-precious stones and glass.

• 600 B.C. to 200 A.D.

Ahichchhatra

• A place for BRW, PGW, and NBPW.

• NBPW was the fourth step.

• The NBPW period began before 300 B.C.

• Different coins, including those of the Kushanas, have been found.

• First there were Caste coins, then Panchala coins from the first century BC, and then Kushan coins.

Atranjikhera

• Site for BRW, PGW, and BPW.

• Period IV is NBPW and has a handis with a point and a jar in the shape of a pear.

• Use of burned bricks.

• A small bone bird, a small vase made of copper, an iron hoe, a bit of mosaic, and terracotta blocks have been found.

• Several blacksmith furnaces and clay kilns have been found.

Noh

• NBPW is the fourth step.

• There have been three stages of building with mud bricks.