Ram Prasad Bismil | UPSC Notes

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Ram Prasad Bismil UPSC

This article focuses on Ram Prasad Bismil, a revolutionary figure in India’s freedom struggle against British colonial rule, and his life, contributions, and legacy.

Ram Prasad Bismil

  • Ram Prasad Bismil was born in Shahjahanpur area, UP, on June 11, 1897.
  • He did things that were against the British Raj. For example, he took part in the Mainpuri Conspiracy in 1918 and the Kakori Train Action in 1925.
  • The Hindustan Republican Association was started by Bismil, who also played a key part in the organisation. The HRA became the Hindustan Socialist RA after Bismil died.
  • Sacrifice and death: At the age of 30, Bismil was killed on December 19, 1927, for his work with the rebels.

Early life and ties to the Arya Samaj


Bismil was born into a Rajput Tomar family. His father taught him Hindi, and a local maulvi taught him Urdu. He also went to a school in Shahjahanpur that was taught in English.

  • He was a member of the Arya Samaj. When he was young, Bismil joined the Arya Samaj, which helped him become a creative writer and poet. He wrote under names like “Agyat,” “Ram,” and the famous “Bismil.”
  • The song “Mera Janm” was written by Bismil when he was 18. It was about how angry he was that the Arya Samaj missionary Bhai Parmanand was being put to death.

Bismil’s most important events

(1) Mainpuri Conspiracy

  • Political disappointment: Bismil lost faith in the Congress Party’s moderate side, so he refused to negotiate with or make peace with the British.
    Bismil started the revolutionary group Matrivedi and worked with Genda Lal Dixit, who had ties to dacoits and wanted to use them in the armed struggle. Bismil’s famous poem, “Mainpuri Ki Pratigya,” was printed in pamphlets and distributed widely across the United Provinces. He stole things in order to get money for his organisation.
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(2) Creating the Hindustan Republican Association

  • Go back to Shahjahanpur. In February 1920, after being hidden for a few years, Bismil went back to Shahjahanpur.
  • The Hindustan Republican Association was started by Bismil, Ashfaqullah Khan, Sachindra Nath Bakshi, and Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee. Chandra Shekhar Azad and Bhagat Singh later joined the group.
  • Putting out the manifesto: Bismil was a big part of writing the “Krantikari” manifesto, which came out publicly on January 1, 1925. The manifesto called for a planned and armed revolt to create a federal Republic of United States of India.

(3) Action on the Kakori Train


The goal of the Kakori Train Action was to steal money from a train travelling between Shahjahanpur and Lucknow.

  • Getting the job done: On August 9, 1925, about ten rebels, including Bismil and Ashfaqullah Khan, stopped the train at the Kakori station, beat the guard, and stole about Rs 4,600 from the treasury bags.
  • Repercussions and a crackdown: Both the British and the Indian people had mixed feelings about what happened. When a gun went off by mistake, it killed a passenger named Ahmad Ali, which hurt public support. After that, there was a violent raid, and most of the people involved were arrested, except for Chandrashekhar Azad.

Death and Legacy

  • The trial and sentencing: Bismil, Ashfaqullah Khan, and Rajendranath Lahiri all went through a long trial and were put to death at the end.
  • Execution and martyrdom: Bismil was killed on December 19, 1927, when he was 30 years old. He left behind a legacy of struggle and commitment to the cause of freedom.
  • Long-lasting impact and memory: Bismil’s poetry continues to move people, and his call for Hindus and Muslims to work together is still a symbol of peace between groups. People remember him for being a rebel and caring deeply about society, justice, and equality.
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