SIPRI Yearbook 2023 | SIPRI Report 2023 | UPSC Notes

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SIPRI report 2023 UPSC

The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) Yearbook 2023 recently said that China might have as many Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) by the end of the decade as the U.S. or Russia.

Russia has the most nuclear arsenals kept, followed by the US and China. However, the US has the most nuclear arsenals in use, followed by Russia and France.

What Does SIPRI Say About Nuclear Arms Stockpiles?

Global Nuclear Arsenals:

o Modernization and expansion: The nine nuclear-armed states, which include the US, Russia, and China, continue to update and grow their nuclear arsenals. In 2022, they will deploy new nuclear-armed or nuclear-capable weapon systems.

o Total Global Inventory: As of January 2023, the total number of warheads in the world was believed to be 12,512. About 9,576 warheads were kept in military stockpiles in case they were needed.

Dominance of Russia and U.S.:

90% of all Nuclear Weapons:

• Russia and the U.S. have almost 90% of all nuclear weapons, and the sizes of their nuclear arsenals are pretty fixed.

o Concerns About Arms Control:

• After Russia’s attack of Ukraine, Russia and the U.S. became less open and less willing to talk about their nuclear forces.Discussions about a follow-up treaty have stopped since the strategic stability conversation and the Treaty on Measures for the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms (New START) were stopped.

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o Both Russia and the United States stayed within the limits set by New START for their deployed strategic nuclear forces as of January 2023, SIPRI said. This was true even though ties between the two countries were tense.

India’s Nuclear Arsenal:

• India’s nuclear arsenal grew from 160 warheads in 2022 to 164 warheads in 2023, and Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal grew from 165 warheads to 170 warheads in the same time period.

o Focus on Longer-Range Weapons:

• India’s nuclear defence is mostly aimed at Pakistan, but it is putting more and more attention on long-range weapons that can hit targets all over China.

o Upgrading Ballistic Missiles:

• India is in the process of upgrading its ballistic missiles.

A submarine-launched intermediate-range ballistic missile is being made, and a new generation ballistic missile called “Agni Prime” is about to be put into service.

China’s Nuclear armoury:

o Got Bigger: According to the SIPRI, China’s nuclear armoury went from 350 warheads in January 2022 to 410 warheads in January 2023.

Concerns About Expansion:

• The large growth of China’s nuclear weapons worries people because it goes against the country’s stated goal of keeping its nuclear forces at a minimum for national security.

What is the SIPRI?

SIPRI is an independent worldwide organisation that studies war, weapons, arms control, and disarmament.SIPRI was founded in Stockholm in 1966. It gives policymakers, researchers, the media, and anyone else interested data, analysis, and suggestions based on open sources.