Soil Types in India : Table | UPSC Notes

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Soil Types in India

Soil Type%Share Rich in Deficient inRegionRemark
Alluvial Soil45%PhosphorusPotash (K)LimeNitrogen PS. Tarai Region — rich in N but poor PRiverine and CoastalNorthern Plains Tarai RegionBhabharVery thin profile (Transported)
Black Soil17%Fe, Mg, Lime, AlK variableN, P, Humus Deccan TrapsKarnataka, Andhra, TelanganaVery fine texture (65% clay)Self Ploughing (vertisols) High Air content 
Red Soil13%FeP, K, CaCentral India (JH, MP, OD)Andhra and Tamil NaduRed colour due to diffusion of Fe Oxide Not much fertile Variable Texture 
Laterite Soil(High rainfall)10%VariableVariable Tropical Highlands – Vindhya, SatpuraCNP, Megh, EG, WGImp. For Bauxite Heavy doses of Fertilisers neededNot in Aravali (ppt << evap.) 
Desert/Arid Soil5%Nitrate, P, KNW, Rajasthan, GujaratVery Fertile (if water can be provided)Alluvial + Loessic depositsVery Coarse (>85% Sand)
Mountain/Forest Soil9%Organic, Micro nutrientsP, KJK, HP, UK, WB(north)Sikkim, Ar.P, NE hillsVery thin profileAcidic SoilGood for horticulture 
Peaty Soil<1%Organic (40%)ManyKL, UKDeltic — WB, OD, AP, TNGleization (anaerobic)Not fit for cultivation Important — Peat mining 
Saline-Alkaline SoilAny soil can be turned into this due to high salination — product of Green Revolution Laterite cannot be salinised because of high rainfall


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