Value Added Material for UPSC Ethics GS 4

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value added material for upsc

Value added material for Ethics GS 4 UPSC Paper

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Sacrifise for

Honesty and Integrity

•Manjunath who sacrifised their life for honestly and Integrity

•IES officer Satyender nath dubey was murdered for finding corrpution in construction of Golden quadrilateral

•Durga Shakti nagpal unveiling the land scam in Uttar pradesh



•Good governance should be like air. Its existence need not be discussed, but its absence would make a huge difference.

•E governance to me is easy, effective and efficient governance. Narendra Modi.


Social persuasion

•Social change : Aurangabad DM had Mid-day meal made by a Dalit Widow to give a message of rising above caste lines and bringing change in existing attitude.

•Legal enforcement : when oddeven was implemented in Delhi, people were given Roses instead of challans on the 1st day to follow the scheme voluntarily

•People’s movement : PM Modi appealed to the general public to become Swachhagrahis for Swachh

Bharat to become Jan-Andolan

(people’s movement)

•Motivating colleagues and subordinates: During times of


crisis like floods, earthquakes, landslides etc, an able administrator can persuade his/her team to serve citizens with full vigour and spirit of service

•Beti Bachao Beti Padhao




•Mahatma Gandhi withdrew noncooperation movement as the Chauri-Chaura incident impinged on his moral conscience, and risked losing popular support.

•Mahabharata teaches that duty is sacrosanct. In fighting for the truth and justice, one should not hesitate in going against family. This is the essential teaching of integrity

•Shree Krishna emphasizes

‘Nishkama Karma’ or selfless work, over convenient dereliction of duty.

•Deontology philosophy prohibits against choosing convenient ends if not justified by moral means

•E.g. Sachin Tendulkar walking off the crease even when given not out by Umpire

Lack of Integrity

•For example, Rajat Gupta’s involvement in insider trading

disgraced him and his alma mater

•using official vehicle for private use

Honesty vs Integrity

•I broke a vass in museum. By not speaking about it, I am not not being dishonest

•But if I have integrity, I will notify the manager about my mistake. Because even if others are not looking it, my conscience is looking at it.

•E.g. Policeman ordered to fire on unarmed peaceful protestors. Honest policeman will obey the order. Policeman of integrity, will refuse to fire.

•Honesty is the first character in the book of Wisdom

•“Realization of Truth is higher than all else. Higher still is truthful living”- Guru Nanak

•Honesty is the fastest way in preventing a mistake to turning into a failure

•The first step towards greatness is honesty

Public service

•Mir Mohammad Ali, 2011 batch kerala cadre IAS officer made Kannur the first plastic free district in 2017

•“The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others.”- MG



Principle, Righteousness

•Always do what is right, it will gratify half of humanity and


astound the other half

•An Army of principles can penetrate where army of soldiers cannot



•Values are like lighthouses, they are signals giving us direction, meaning and purpose

Role of family, School

APJ Abdul Kalam example

•Family is the first teacher and teacher is the second family



•Every saint has a past, and every sinner has a future — Oscar Wilde

•Success is walking from failure to failure

•Be the change you want to see in the world – MG

Dedication for


•Reforms in Tihar jail by Kiran Bedi



•TN Seshan for cleansing the election system

Laws for Transparency and minimise corruption

•Right to Information Act, 2005

(RTI Act),

•Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act,


•Citizen’s Charter,

•social audit,

•Digitization of records


•Cultivate public trust: As per the 2nd Administrative Reforms Commission, transparency in a democracy allows bidirectional information flow, which allows citizens to participate in governance thereby building public trust

•Detect, prevent and deter Corruption : e.g., An RTI filed by activists uncovered an unholy nexus in the Adarsh

•Corruption is the biggest disease, Transparency is the vaccine


Housing Scam

•increasing the chances of getting caught by the officials involved in corruption. For eg., Andhra Pradesh uses blockchain technology to address issues of fraud and corruption in the state in land ownership data records

•deters senior officials from putting pressure on subordinates into taking biased decision-making.


Media ethics

Ethical issues in Media

•Commercialization of media

•Misuse of freedom of speech and press

•violates the right to privacy.

•Impedes right to fair trial: Media trial impedes the right to a fair trial

•Irresponsible reporting: Covering news without checking veracity of facts

•Fake news

•Sensalisation of news

•Vested interests of Political parties, Business houses

•Media funding and stakeholder pattern

Impact of Unethical reporting

•Creating a misinformed society

•Biases and prejudices

•Riots and disturb communal harmony

•Harms right to information

•Degradatiion of 4th pillar of democracy

•Crowding out the real issues

•Propagating fear and anxiety

Steps to stregthen Media ethics

Always write in terms of Legal and Social change


•Independent self-regulatory body:

•Legal rules under IPC, IT regulation act, 2000

•Regular audit

•Showcasing the ownership and media funding

•Encouraging a central role for civil society:

•Using technology to check fake news:

Social measures

•Sensitisation of people in media industry

•Proper training


•One who control the media control the mind. One who control the mind control everything

•Arthur Miller said, “Good Newspaper, I believe is a Nation talking to itself”.

•’Neither bow and arrow nor sword do you require, publish a


newspaper when faced with a cannon fire.’


•Vikram Sarabhai accepted the failure of ISRO first mission without actually putting it on the mission head (APJ Abdul Kalam). Thus taking full accountability for the failure of his team.


•Accountability is the first chapter in the book of public service

How to uphold accountability

•Control and monitoring

•Checks and balances (Ar 74)

•Institutions of CAG, CVC, Judiciary, ED, NHRC

•Conduct rules

•Citizen charter, RTI, Egovernance

•Judicial : Writ jurisdiction

•Legislative : Financial control, Parliamentary discussions

Why accountability is still not upheld

•Weak implementation


•Nexus, corruption

•Policy level corruption

•Lack of guarantee of taking action

•Lack of time, expertise and resources to monitor countless government decisions

Type of accountability





Responsibility vs accountability

Responsibility : An elected MP/MLA is responsible for development of entire country.

Accountability : For example: An elected MP/MLA is accountable for development of his constituency only

Accountability without responsibility ?

•It creates space for corruption

e.g., through appropriation of government subsidies by creating ‘ghost beneficiaries’.

•It builds up inefficiencies such as construction of poor-quality roads and infrastructure

•Despotic governance E.g.

incidents of police overturning vegetable carts while enforcing lockdown restrictions, or an IAS officer slapping a person for alleged violation of lockdown



•Absence of grievance redressal leads to non-responsive governance


•Ashok Khemka working even after 50 transfers in 25 years

•Sam Manekshaw during 1971 War.

Courage is not the absence of fear,

but the triumph over it”. – Nelson Mandela

Law vs Ethics


•In law a man is guilty when he violates the rights of others ; In ethics he is guilty he only thinks of doing so

Law and Justice


•Injustice anywhere, threat to justice everywhere

•Law without justice is a wound without a cure

Role of Law

Role of Law

•clarifying the values, procedures and course of action/ behaviour

•regulating the provision and use of public goods and natural resources. For example, distribution of food grains through the Targeted Public Distribution System

•promote order, fairness, and safety of the citizens. For example, Traffics rules and regulations bring order to city road traffic


Morality vs Law

Why laws are not enough?

•Conflicting laws:For example, the conflict between sharing of information in public domain through the RTI Act and restrictions as per the Official Secrets Act

•Evolving laws with society morality: As the society evolves, it is not the laws and rules but larger public values and moral principles E.g., Section 377 of Indian Penal Code, PreConception and Pre-Natal

Diagnostic Techniques Act etc.

•Actions driven by compassion:

Owing to his compassion, civil

•Society cannot be made strong by strong laws. For that people with good character is needed. Swami Vivekananda

•Art, like morality consist of drawing the line somewhere


servant might have to go beyond

the limiting laws. E.g. Swarochish Somavamshi

•Lack of Sensitization and awareness : E.g. Citizen Charter

•Role of individual’s conscience: At times, an individual’s conscience helps as a guide to take ethical decisions. For example, public administrators are involved in corruption cases despite the Prevention of

Corruption Act, 1988


Private ethics vs Public ethics


Breach of Trust


•Lance Armstrong winning 7 tour de france titles due to performance enhancement drugs



•Super 30 by Anand kumar in Bihar. Free coaching to poor and marginalised students

•Swarochish Somavanshi : AC


•Umaria collector

•Mother teressa cancelling Nobel prize launch for feeding poor kids

•Ratan tata donating Cancer hospital in Assam

Philosophical references:

•Gita: Selfless performance of duty (Nishkam Karma)

•Gandhi: Service to people especially vulnerable, downtrodden section of society.

•Vivekananda: Service to men is service to God.

•Kant: Moral command is given to the person by own conscience

to act in selfless manner. It is

moral duty

Immanuel Kant Philosophy

•All human beings will act in same manner in same situation i.e.

person will like his/her action to become a universal law.

•Action should not be considered as means to achieve some ends, rather action should be end in itself.


•Eradicate social evil practices in a society like human trafficking, child labour, and bonded labour which consider humans as means to achieve certain ends

•Treating people as ends in themselves will help in protecting their dignity and



Limitations of philosophy

•Human actions cannot become always end in itself. Some situations require means and ends relation. E.g. stealing medicine for sick mother (Utilitarian or Teleology).

•In terrorist exchange for hostages : If principle of zero terrorism is followed the hostages cannot be saved




•Operation sulaeimani in Kozhikode district where no one is left hungry. Anyone can collect a sulaemani coupon from authorised distribution centres


Innovation in Public Service

•Armstrong pame : 100 km road solely through crowd funding


Conflict of interest/Ethical dilemma

•As a district collector, deciding the circle rate of properties where my ancestral propertly also lies

•Deciding admission cutoffs when my daughter is also applying for the admission in college in which I am the principal

•Judge hearning the case of his own son (CJI SH Kapadia in Vodafone case)

•a police officer got the tip of an upcoming drug deal in the city, and he had to rush there to catch the drug dealers. At the same time, his wife is on the verge of delivering their baby. She needs the presence of her husband with her. In this

situation, the officer is in an ethical dilemma where he has to select one value over the others. Here, professional and family duties conflict.


•The time is always right to do what is right – Martin Luther king

•If it is not right do not do it, if it is not true do not say it – Marcus Aureillis

Ethical Dilemma

•Sikh soldier was asked to fire in Gurudwara during operation blue star

•Indian partition (Getting independence vs Death of millions due to partition)


Conflicting values faced by Civil servants

•Loyalty versus professionalism •Transparency versus

Confidentiality: Conflict could arise in need to dispense securitysensitive information under RTI

•Modernity versus Traditions: Issues on environment, gender, caste etc. E.g., discouraging slash and-burn agriculture among tribals

•Bureaucratic attitude

(Impartiality, Neutrality,

Anonymity) vs Business like (Fast,

Efficient, Incentive structure)

•Equity vs Efficiency

•Integrity versus bureaucratic accountability: Conflict of conscience in implementing laws and policies perceived to be immoral. E.g., Resignation of IAS officer Sasikanth Senthil over CAA

•Dutifulness versus wellbeing: Taking strict actions against cartels and criminals could bring threats

to family, self and career. E.g., murder of Neha Shoree, a drug officer in Punjab

•Probity versus efficiency: Taking a strict stand on issues related to corruption could result in delays. E.g., delays in projects, tender allocation etc.

•Morality vs law

•Ethics in private relations vs Ethics in public relations


•IIT Delhi students made smokeless chulah for mine workers in bhatti mines

•Sonam Wangchuk in leh, ladakh

•Mars orbiter mission at less than Rs. 5/km

Aptitude required in civil servants

•Emotional intelligence

○Dealing emotionally sensitive situations : E.g. Mob lynching

○High pressure situation from senior ministers

•Professional competence





•Ethical competence

○Knowing the ethical standards

○Following complete honesty and integrity

•Social competence

○Ability to understand different socio-cultural


○Important as interface with varied stakeholders in the society

○Persuasion abilities



•Responsibility and responsiveness



•Citizen friendliness

•Precision in decision making


•ABC factor to change attitude

•Affect : Influence emotions.

E.g. People are persuaded to wear helmets, weak seatbelts by person depicting ‘Yama’ standing on traffic signal. (Feeling of death affects people to change their attitude).

•Behaviour : It is reflection of attitude but also change the

attitude. E.g. If a civil servant is having complacent attitude but works in office with good work culture, his attitude will change over the time and he will become active

•Cognition : Knowledge part of human mind. Persuading by giving right arguments by appealing to rationality. E.g. In Swacch Bharat Mission, attitude of people changed towards sanitation through advertisements, pictorials (giving them knowledge about importance of sanitation)

•Stephen hawking diagnosed with ALS at age of 21. He lived till 76 years and made great finding about universe

•Battle of Kalinga to Ashoka change of Attitude

Bhagavadgita for attitudinal change

1.Sama: Instructions/information.

2.Dana: Incentive.

3.Danda: Punishment.

4.Bheda: Discrimination.

E.g. Abdul Kalam said, his father used to held discussion with people from all religions. This made his attitutde more tolerant and secular

Causes for prejudiced attitude in

Indian society

•Tradition and culture

•Caste structure

•Political mobilisation on basis of narrow interests

•Dominance of forward class in many walks of life

•Socialisation process

•Education institutions themselves

•Resource scarcity and power concentration

•Reservation provisions

Ethical governance

•strengthen CVC, Lokpal, WhistleBlowers Act

•Citizens’ charters, social audits , RTI

•promoting moral education to inculcate values like integrity, honesty, selflessness, sacrifice, spirit of service

•From bureaucratic attitude to democratic attitude


Citizen charter



•Sevottam model

•Implementation of Seven step model recommended by 2nd ARC that ensures citizen centricity.

•local language

•Proper allocation of funds for awareness generation



•Story of Ira Singhal, UPSC CSE 2014 toper, First differently abled IAS exam toper

•Story of Japan from ashes in world war 2 to modernisation in just 2 decades


Custodial deaths

•NCRB : In last 20 years, 1,888 custodial deaths were reported across the country, in which 893 cases were registered against police personnel and 358 personnel were charge-sheeted.



•Professor Kalam parents always invited people from all religions for discussions. This made him become more secular and tolerant person

•The highest result of education is tolerance : Helen Keller

•Anger and intolerance are the enemy of correct understanding : Gandhi


•Ex : Calling off NCM after the chauri chaura incident

•MS Dhoni maintains his tempo during cricket matches

•Buddhism talks about taking middle path in all actions. This is nothing but following temperance in one’s action.



•Lal bahadur shastri used to fast every Monday when country was facing food crisis

•A sign of good leader is not how many followers you have, but how many leaders you create

•You cannot be a good leader without a good character

•A boss has the title, a leader has the people

Sympathy vs empathy vs compassion

•If a poor person come to an administrative officer without adequate documents for a LPG connection.

•In case, he just shows his concern, it is sympathy.


•If you want others to be happy, practice compassion. If you want to be happy, practice compassion – Dalai Lama

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•Further, in case he consoles the person and tells him that he shares

his agony and suffering, it is empathy.

•Finally, in case he not only shows his solidarity but also uses his discretionary powers to allocate him a connection, it is compassion.

•Compassionate Kozhikode is a project by district administration of Kozhikode to facilitate people who are willing to give to people who are in need.



•India gave shelter to 80,000 tibetans in India. We provided medical and education facilities to


•Abdul kalam as a project head took the children of his junior for the exhibition due to engrossment in work by the junior




•Justice HR khanna judgement during emergency




•Conscience is the inner sense of right or wrong that helps a person make correct decisions

•Conscience also helps in building moral courage and integrity

•For example: Sanjiv Chaturvedi (IFoS) acted as whistle-blower in the Haryana Forestry case.

•For example: conscience give courage and ability to say no to illegitimate demands of seniors/ministers

•Ramkrishna paramhansa gave duty to steal rice so that no one is looking. Swami vivekananda came empty handed as he knew that he

himself was looking himself in the

wrong deed

“There is higher courts than courts of justice and that is conscience :


Cognitive dissonance

•Cognitive dissonance refers to a situation involving conflicting attitudes, beliefs or behaviours. This produces a feeling of discomfort

•For example, when people smoke


(behaviour) and they know that smoking causes cancer (cognition), they are in a state of cognitive dissonance.


Ethics and unjust laws


•Gandhi Civil disobedience movement against Rowlatt act

•Martin Luther king

•Nelson mandela against Apartheid regime

•JP Narayan movement



•Objectivity refers to taking decisions on fair basis without any bias or external influence.

•For example, a judicial magistrate with objectivity would go by the merits of a robbery case rather than being influenced by the public perception of the culprit.

○Lack of Critical thinking: ASI began gold hunting in Uttar Pradesh, on order of a union minister who believed a baba.

○They showed lack of critical thinking by blindly following dictates of some person.

Fairness vs Objectivity

•Objectivity should not be misconstrued as a mechanical and rigid adherence to laws and rules. There must be an element of fairness in the decision making.

•Ex: A judge imposing same fine on a rich and poor man when both have done same crime may be objective but not fair


Non-performance of duty

•Doctor not reaching hospital on time

•Teacher not evaluating the students timely


Public trust

Good examples

•E.g. : Election Commission enjoys high trust and this has helped it to implement ‘Model Code of Conduct’ even without Legislature’s backing.

•Belief in Judiciary

Bad Examples


•Police, CBI




•Non-alignment movement (NAM) to be neutral of USA and USSR




•Yato Dharmastato Jayah

○”Where there is Dharma, there will be Victory”


Schools of Ethics

•Virtue Ethics

•Do what a virtuous person would do in similar situation e.g., taking guidance from Gandhi’s talisman


•Do what has good consequences and avoid bad consequences.

•E.g. No act is wrong in itself. Even committing a murder is right if it serves a good purpose.


•This theory suggests actions themselves are good or bad based on their adherence to a set of rules

•Action must be Universal in Nature

•e.g., killing is wrong because it cannot be universalized.

•God-based Ethics (Supernaturalism):

•It prescribes that only source of ethics is God and his words are generally contained in religious scriptures


Role of teacher


•Chanakya- Chandragupt maurya

•“Swadeshe Pujyate Raja, Vidwan Sarvatra Pujyate”

○“A king is honoured only in his own country, but one who is learned is honoured throughout the world.”

Attitude vs



•Sachin and Vinod kambli used to have similar aptitude but ut was the attitude which made all the difference


International relations

Good examples

•Vaccine Maitri policy of India

•despite overwhelming developmental needs, India has committed to achieve net zero emissions by 2070

•India welcomed the UNCLOS decision on maritime dispute

•”World hear the argument of power and not the power of argument”


with Bangladesh even though it lost maritime space

•Non-alignment movement

•Gujral Doctrine

•Vasudev Kutumbakam

Bad examples

•US leaving Afghanistan in Crisis

•India continues to purchase cheap oil from Russia despite criticism from the West

•USA, biggest exponent of the democracy, supported dictatorship regimes in South America and Africa

•Global War on Terror (GWT) of America, led to loss of several innocent lives by Drone strikes


War ethics

•The debate before war i.e.

whether war is ethical or unethical. Whether country should involve in war or not

•During and after war, what ethical standards should be followed by all parties in war

Examples of ethical war

•Ramayana and Mahabharata

(protection of dharma)

•Indian war of independence (Defending own dignity and rights)

•India-Pakistan War 1971 (Protection to life and establishing peace)

Examples of unethical war

•Ukraine – Russia war

(Aggression by the Russia over sovereign nation)

•World Wars (Racism, greed to capture colonial markets)

•Iraq war (Self-interest)

Saint Augustine gave ‘Just War


•Waged by a legitimate authority (State).

Negatives of war

•Application of power rather than human intellect

•War is not indicator of application of high level of wisdom

•result in loss of life of many people

•War results into arms race

During war

•Civilian population should be avoided

•When military surrenders or declares for peace, others side should respect it & follow war conventions. E.g. Geneva convention etc.

•Soldiers killed in war should be handed over each other side with due respect or bury in their country with all burial ceremony.

•Military should not violate human rights In conflict zone.


•In a just cause.

•Waged with a right intention. •

•Be a last resort.

•Be proportional


Misuse of Power

•misuse of political power to influence public officials; horse trading; money for votes

•Misuse of article 356

•Public officials please and placate their political bosses, in order to continue on plum postings

•Criminalisation of politics : tickets are given to strongman candidates to leverage their winnability

•Nepotism and crony capitalism


Impact of digital technology on socialisation



• Taking a ‘Goldilocks’ approach to children’s screen time – not too much, not too little – and focusing more on what children are doing online and less on how long they are online, can better protect them and help them make the most of their time online.


•In AP, MLA slept near graveyard to chase away fear of construction workers.

•Sreedharan, Metro Man, was made MD of DMRC at the age of 65. He completed the project within/before the time and within the allocated budget.



Greed is the unsatiable desire to

possess things in excess of one’s

needs Examples

•Harshad Mehta, Nirav Modi

•In words of Gandhiji, the world has enough for everyone’s needs but not enough for anyone’s greed



•Bureacrats taking bribes

•Pooja Singhal money laundering case

Result of greed

•Dissatisfaction and Crime : coexistence of prosperity and extreme poverty in the same society due to systemic greed.

•Revolutions : French and Russian revolutions against the bourgeois society, or the Naxal movement against landlords in India.


Public service

•IFS Vikas Ujjawal in Lohardaga forest division boosting green cover, employment, and tourism



•DM Prashant Nair for

Compassionate Kozhikode



•Mother teresa cancelled the Nobel prize dinner to feed the hungry people

•In Kalyansundaram, 74 year old men donated his entire life saving 30 crores for the education of poor children




•Bachpan bachao andolan (Saved 88,000 children from Child labour till now)



•Uighur Muslims in China


•Stalin’s tyranny in USSR


Success many not lead to happiness

•Sushant singh rajput

•Owner of CCD

•Chester bennington

•Scammers : Nirav modi, Harshad mehta


Happiness leading to success

•Doing what one likes : Manjamma Jogathi (a transwoman) does what makes her happy i.e. dance and was awarded Padma Shree in 2021

•Fullfill emotional and spiritual needs : All the wealth of the


kingdom could not make Prince Siddhartha happy. Buddha was content and happy only after enlightenment, when he had no material possession



•Hitler vs Jews

•Colonial people towards Indian poor

•Apartheid regime


Utilisation of funds


•Former PM Rajiv Gandhi said every 1 rupee spent on public welfare and only 15 paise is reached to the poor



CIC : More than 90 RTI activists have been Murdered.

•E.g. Rajendra Singh was killed in West Champaran in 2018 for using the RTI Act to expose land encroachments and scams in construction works

RTI act and its features

•Legal right to every citizen to seek info

•Should be given within 30 days

•On failure to give info within 30 days, penalty of Rs. 25,000

•Every governemnt department must have a PIO

•Complaint redressal mechanism in terms of appellate authority and information commissioners

•As per section 8 of RTI act, some categories of information and some institutions would not be under the purview of RTI

•As per section 22, RTI will have overriding powers over OSA

2nd ARC : RTI is the light in the era of darkness

Good examples of RTI


•Vyapam scam


•Aadarsh scam

•UPSC started giving cut-offs

Bad examples of RTI

•It was expected that people would apply RTI for public interest, but 80% of them are for private purposes

•Long pending requests and delays

•RTI activists are harrassed

•Poor and incomplete information

•Limited power in the hands of PIO

•At many departments PIOs are not even appointed


Corruption perception Index : 80th rank out of 180

E.g, 2G Scam, Coal block scam, Vyapam, and recent Puja Singhal case

•Corruption is the biggest disease, Transparency is the vaccine

•Corruption is not simply a matter of theft but a betrayal of trust

•Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts



Emotional Intelligence

Tackling issues examples

•Effectively process the political rhetoric, cancel-culture, trolling etc

•Family stress management

•Gandhiji Chauri chaura incident

•Time management : a DM with high EI can perform his official duties and also attend to his personal commitments without getting herself hassled.

•Robust mental health. E.g., EI will enable a student to improve his weak areas rather than resort to self-harm after failing in an exam.

Benefits examples

•Good relationship management : DM having better relations with his subordinates

•Good communication : expression of one’s feeling/emotions towards the other

•Going out of negative outlook towards failure. E.g., an athlete with high EI can unshackle himself from a defeat and will prepare for next competition with renewed zeal

•Sense of purpose . E.g., an IFS officer in a war-torn country

•As quoted in Bhagwat Gita that greatest knowledge is the knowledge of the self

•EI decides 80% of success at workplace while IQ is responsible for only 20% (Daniel Goleman)

•Draw diagram of 80/20 principle

•The true hero is one who conquers his own anger and hatred

Values vs ethics

•Suppose someone highly values success, we will expect him to be goal oriented.

•But the method he choose to achieve that success, either by correct or incorrect ways, is a matter of ethics.

•E.g. Value of achievement by Harshad Mehta achieving wealth by Unethical means




•Democracy is the government of the people, by the people, for the people


•Democracy is where weakest has the same powers as the strongest : Mahatama Gandhi

•Dissident and dissent are very life blood of democracy

Principles for



Broad principles for responsible management of AI (NITI Aayog):

•Principle of Safety and Reliability

•Principle of Equality

•Principle of Inclusivity and Nondiscrimination

•Principle of Privacy and security

•Principle of Transparency

•Principle of Accountability

•Principle of protection and reinforcement of positive human values


Performance based incentives


•Reward, recognition act as motivation to further serve better

•According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, person seeks to satisfy basic minimum needs (ego needs) first

•Indian society has changed due to LPG reforms and individuals have become more ambitious

•More lucrative opportunities in Private sector

•Need to attract best talent of the country


•Basic motive must be public service

•Principle of Nishkam Karma


•May encourage corruption

•Attract wrong type of people

•It may create more and more conflict of interest situations for the civil servants while discharging their duties


Equity vs Equality

•Equality is treating everyone equally, concerning their status,


rights and opportunities, without considering whether they are already equal or unequal.

•Whereas, when existing inequality is considered and compensated for, it is called equity


Laws related




Corporate governance

Corporate governance

•CG is defined as good governance for corporate sector

•It involves collective way of decision making with participation of all stakeholders, and upholding complete transparency and accountability

Committees and examples

•Narayan Murty committee

•Kumar Mangalam Birla committee

•Companies act,2013

•Narayan murty gave

Compassionate capitalism

•Good treatment of employees at Tata even after leaving the company

New companies act, 2013

•1/2 of the members must be independent

•Defines independent director

•Atleast one women should be independent director

•2% of net profit must go for CSR activities

Issues with CG in India

•68% business in India are

•Good corporate governance is about being proper and prosper

•Community is not just the stakeholder, but the very reason for existence of the company

•Commerce without morality is a Sin


family owned

•Environment provided by govt is not coducive for good corporate governance

○It promotes Jack, Jugaad and bribe


Women harassment

•POSH (Prevention of sexual harrassment) act, 2013

•Vishakha guidelines

•Harassment of women at workplace act, 2013

•Domestic violence act

•Dowry prohibition act


•Sati prevention act, 1987

•Equal remuneration act, 1976


Child marriage

•Prohibition of child marriage act, 2006


Untouchability, SC/ST

•Article 17

•Untouchability (Offences) act ,


•Protections of civil rights act

•Prevention of atrocities (SC, ST)



•Bombay prevention of begging act, 1959

•Juvenile justice act, 2015

•Ar 23 (Rights against exploitation)


Pregnancy related

•Maternity benefits act, 1961

•Medical termination of pregnancy act, 1971



•Wildlife protection act, 1972

•Environment protection act, 1986



•Disaster management act,


•NDMA guidelines



•Transgender protection of


•Transgender protection of


rights act , 2019


Children related

•POCSO act, 2012

•Juvenile justice act, 2015

•Child labour act, 2016

•RTE, 2009


Internet related

•Indian telegraph act, 1885

•Information technology act, 200 (IT)

○Section 69 was enacted deal with survellience of all electronoc communication


Role of Laws

Role of Laws

•Social welfare : National food security act

•Rights based development : Right to education, 2009

•Transparency : RTI act

•Accountability : Social audit in MGNREGA

•Anti-corruption provisions : Lokpal act, Prevention of corruption act


Role models

Does present generation lack role models?

•According to PRATHAM Survey, 40% young students lack role models

•Present day role models have narrow perspectives of caste/religion

•Social media influencers as the new age role models



•Article 23

•Immoral trafficking prevention act, 1956


Anonymity and Secrecy

Tools to maintain secrecy

•Official secrets act, 1923

•Oath & secrecy

•Indian evidence act

•Prevention of corruption act

•Conduct rules for civil servants

•Anonymity allows civil servants to furnish free and fair advice without the fear of adverse consequences.

•E.g., victimization after change of government is possible in absence of bureaucratic anonymity

Code of conduct

1.Civil services conduct rules,


1.Civil services conduct rules,



Minimize steps of

enquiry. i.e. number of

procedures &


Should be Code of

Ethics for Civil Servants

& Code of Conduct for



Corruption laws

should be amended so

that there’s separation

between commission

of offence & amassing

of wealth.


II has also

recommended for

adopting a civil service

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code replacing the

present conduct rules

which will consists of

Level-1, Level-2 and


2.AIS conduct rules amended,


3.Central services conduct rules,


4.AIS act, 1951

5.PoCA 1988 & other laws including IPC, IEA, OSA


Code of conduct as effective deternece

•Provide moral values for decision making

•Create fear of punishment

•essential for discipline, good behaviour, order, honesty & integrity

•They act as internal as well as external check on civil servants

•’Perform or Perish’ : After 15 years of service, performance is reviewed & if not satisfied warning is given. After 25 years, if performance is not found satisfactory, service is terminated.

Not a effective deterence

•Enquiries are often delayed even it takes more than 2 years.

•Article 311 works as road block in removal of C.S.

•Prevention of corruption Act, liabilities are on C.S. to prove their innocence. Joint secretary & above level officers-enquiry needs permission from higher authorities.

•There are lobbies IAS, IPS & nexus between politician bureaucrats & corruption


•Most of corruption cases, officer haven’t been punished


Good civil servants examples

  • Tejaswi Satpute on tackling illegal hooch problem in solapur as SP (2012 batch IPS)
  • Mir mohammad ali, 2011 batch kerala cadre IAS officer made Kannur the first plastic free district in 2017
  • Vikram Sarabhai accepted the failure of ISRO first mission without actually putting it on the mission head (APJ Abdul Kalam). Thus taking full accountability for the failure of his team.
  • Ratan tata donating Cancer hospital in Assam
  • Operation sulaeimani in Kozhikode district where no one is left hungry. Anyone can collect a sulaemani coupon from authorised distribution centres
  • Armstrong pame (Manipur Cadre) : 100 km road solely through crowd funding
  • Story of Ira Singhal, UPSC CSE 2014 toper, First differently abled IAS exam toper
  • Fairness : Justice HR khanna judgement during emergency
  • For example: Sanjiv Chaturvedi (IFoS)acted as whistle-blower in the Haryana Forestry case
  • Manjunath who sacrifised their life for honestly and Integrity
  • IES officer Satyender nath dubey was murdered for finding corrpution in construction of Golden quadrilateral
  • Durga Shakti nagpal unveiling the land scam in Uttar pradesh
  • Aurangabad DM had Mid-day meal made by a Dalit Widow to give a message of rising above caste lines and bringing change in existing attitude.
  • Reforms in Tihar jail by Kiran Bedi
  • TN Seshan for cleansing the election system
  • Ashok Khemka working even after 50 transfers in 25 years • Sam Manekshaw during 1971 War.
  • Swarochish Somavanshi : AC Donation
  • Umaria collector
  • Mother teressa cancelling Nobel prize launch for feeding poor kids
  • Super 30 by Anand kumar in Bihar. Free coaching to poor and marginalised students
  • Dutifulness versus wellbeing: Taking strict actions against cartels and criminals could bring threats to family, self and career. E.g., murder of Neha Shoree, a drug officer in Punjab
  • Lal bahadur shastri used to fast every Monday when country was facing food crisis
  • Compassionate Kozhikodeis a project by district administration (DM Prashant Nair) of Kozhikode to facilitate people who are willing to give to people who are in need.
  • E.g. : Election Commission enjoys high trust and this has helped it to implement ‘Model Code of Conduct’ even without Legislature’s backing.
  • Sachin and Vinod kambli used to have similar aptitude but it was the attitude which made all the difference
  • IFS Vikas Ujjawal in Lohardaga forest division boosting green cover, employment, and tourism
  • Doing what one likes : Manjamma Jogathi (a transwoman) does what makes her happy i.e. dance and was awarded Padma Shree in 2021
  • Humility : Ratan Tata had lunch with workers on his retirement day
  • when odd-even was implemented in Delhi, people were given Roses instead of challans on the 1st day to follow the scheme voluntarily
  • E.g. Sachin Tendulkar walking off the crease even when given not out by Umpire
  • Battle of Kalinga to Ashoka change of Attitude


Intervention by Government

  • The present government has taken a set of radical measures to create a professional staff like

○ 1. A centralised bio-metric system for punctuality and discipline

○ 2. SPARROW, PROBITY and Solve for integrity and performance

○ 3. 360 degree for performance based culture

○ 4. Perform or Perish to dismantle traditional bureaucratic attitude ○ 5. Lateral Entry for professional behaviour

Important committee

  • Criminal justice : Malimath committee
  • Corporate governance : Narayan murty, Kumar mangalam birla
  • Police : Prakash singh badal case
  • Governance : NCRWC, 2nd ARC
  • Elections : Dinesh Goswami, Vohra committee

Important DPSP

  • Education : Article 21A
  • Social justice (Inequality) : Article 38
  • Legal Aid : Article 39A
  • Working class : Article 41, 42
  • Women : Article 42 (Maternity relief)

UCC : Article 44


Children : Article 45

  • Minorities interests : Article 46
  • Public health : Article 47
  • Health, Nutrition, Standard of living : Article 47
  • Environment : Article 48A


Introduction – 1

○ The above case is an example of increasing social media usage in influencing election results.

○ Such actions goes against the right to privacy under Article 21 of an Individual

So basically in introduction, firstly mention case briefly. Then mention law/constitution/facts

Introduction – 2

Real life current affairs event

○ The case study relates to a similar case of chardham project by Indian army


○ Do not mention (I, ME) in stakeholders

○ Use varied diagrams (Horizontal, Circle, Vishakaha)

Ethical Issues

Write the instance

○ 2-3 sub point below of ethical issue in the instance

Election profiling case

○ Profiling of people through questionnaire

  • Against right to privacy
  • Against individual freedom  Against right to choose

Critical evaluation of options

1. Bad option

  1. Merits
    1. Temporary peace of mind
    2. Good books of government
  2. Demerits
    1. Compromise honesty and integrity
    2. Compromise medical ethics
    3. Crisis of conscience

Course of Action

Establish standard operating procedure (SOP) to reduce arbitrariness

Aim : To provide justice to minorities and maintain law and order

Divide into short term and long term

First information collection and then action

In action (Social aspects (NGOs, Campaigns) and legal aspects)

○ First think of information collection for better understanding and then action

○ Write as step 1, step 2

○ Write my Aim just before course of action

○ Division : Divide into immediate action and long term action (If space permits) otherwise write together but think in terms of short term and long term

○ For all the stakeholders : Also try to think in terms of resolving the issues of all the stakeholders E.g. In case of sexual harrasment at workplace, Justice to victim, Punitive action against convict, better functioning of company, Awareness to all employees, confidence to other female employees etc.

Give adequate space to course of action (Atleast 3/4th to full page)

Dedicated toll free number in cases of social exploittion (Child labour, Human trafficking)

Justification of action

○ Use philosophies (Utilitarian , Kantian, Virtue ethics, Gandhian principle)

○ Fullfilling the social contract between State and the citizens

○ Kautilya Arthshastra mentions the duty of the king to serve the citizens

○ It is my fundamental duty

○ Accountability to public

○ Satisfy inner conscience

○ Quote DPSP, Fundamental rights


Must be atleast 4 lines or 2 lines and a quotation

○ Minorities : The situation demands compassionate understanding and sensitive approach towards minorities

○ General : The above issue need a multidimensional approach with involvement of all stakeholders from public, civil society and private arenas

○ Policy suggestion : The approach of the state must be based on thorough research and studying the international best practices. Final decision must be guided by common good approach

○ Welfare scheme : To become a truly welfare state, we must uphold equality among all (Article – 39) and work to achieve the goal of holistic human development

○ Therefore, my action would be based on transparency, selflessness and upholding constitutional values in the interest of larger public welfare

Conclusion quotes

○ We must follow gandhiji’s advise “….”

○ In the end we can quote “…..”


○ “Swadeshe Pujyate Raja, Vidwan Sarvatra Pujyate”

 “A king is honoured only in his own country, but one who is learned is honoured throughout the world.”


○ “Om Sarve Bhavantu Sukhinah, Sarve Santu Nir-Aamayaah”

 This verse from ancient times which means “May everyone be happy, may everyone be free from all diseases”pen


○ Every saint has a past, and every sinner has a future — Oscar Wilde

○ Be the change you want to see in the world – Mahatma Gandhi


○ Yato Dharmastato Jayah

 “Where there is Dharma, there will be Victory”


○ The time is always right to do what is right – Martin Luther king

○ If it is not right do not do it, if it is not true do not say it – Marcus Aureillis



Ethical dilemma

Ethical Issues


servants on social media


•Smita Sabhaewal, an IAS oficer has questioned through social media, “as a woman and civil servant I sit in disbelief, on reading the news on thee #Bilkis BanoCase.

•Shah Faisal expressed views on AFSPA as Draconian law.

•Many civil servants have their fan pages


•It affects their dedication to public service

•Threat of cyber security and privacy

•Usage during office hours show non-performance of duty which is equal to moral corruption

•against the civil service values of anonymity

•Some garner for publicity and flaunting their social imagery

•There is some objectionable content on social media which may not be verified

•Sometimes fake news lead to embarrassment for government

and the civil servant

Positives of civil servants on social media

•fundamental rights of freedom of speech and expression

•Civil servants may be using social media for personal relation like family, relatives and friends

•Awareness creation for government schemes

•Raise transparency

•Improve public participation in governance

•Motivation for new aspirants

•Raise personal satisfaction of civil servants


○Right to life of mother

○Right to life of foetus

○Bodily autonomy of female

○Sexual and reproductive rights

○Social stigma associated with abortion

○Lack of debate on safe abortion with dignity and respect to the pregnant


○Sex determination at birth, if girl then abortion

○Burden on states and family


if the child comes with disability


Changing attitude case studies

○Always think in terms of ABC framework


Case study on business

○Gandhi 7 sin of “Commerce without morality”

○Trusteeship principle

○Compassionate capitalism


Polio vaccination

in tribal area and misinformati on about vaccine. My course of action

○When only course of action is asked then divide into Short term and long term course of action

Short term

○Social persuasion

○Help of local leaders

○Taking vaccine in public by myself and my team

○Nukkad nataks for better information spread

○Use of media to teach them in vernacular language/Tribal


Training of medical staff

○Sensitivity training

○Communication training

Safety of medical staff is utmost priority

Long term

○There is a need for promoting education to promote

scientific temper

○Enhance communication channels

○Socio-economic development

○Recruitment of health workers from the local tribal community.

○Bottoms up approach :

increasing people participation in decision making.


Case study on Tribals or Environmen


○Tribal Panchsheel

○FRA, 2006

○PESA, 1996

○EPA, 1986

○WPA, 1972


○Forest conservation, 1980

○Environment impact assessment


Good lines

When asked to remain silent on a corruption issue

•To remain silent regarding crime is also a crime


Minor girl pregnant, passage of 24 weeks, sexual exploitation

○Life of girl vs life of foetus

○Right to life for the girl

○Right to have free will

○Law vs morality

○Outraging the modesty of women

○Privacy concerns as the girl is HIV positive

○Lack of social justice : Due to delays in permission for abortion

Course of action

I am head of the NGO

•Take the girl to medical board immediately and assess her overall health and her baby

•Written representation to state government and district magistrate for exemption

•Approach HC to take exemption for this particular


If the court give favourable decision, then similar precedent must be followed in other cases

If the decision is not favourable

•Then I will ensure safe institutional delivery of the baby

•Arrange the transfer of baby to foster home

•Child may get adopted and have a normal life

Law vs Morality

Which one to choose??

•Law must be followed in letter and spirit

•Even law is driven by parlimentary and contitution morality

•There must be no procedural delays to ensure swift law enforcement




Vishing attacks in

one district. I am the SP of district

Q.Identify the various dimensions of the crisis ?

Ethical dimension

○Erosion of morality among youth

○Lure of easy money


○Corruption of politicians

Social dimension

○High poverty and unemployement in district

○Lack of education

○Gullibility of locals

○Reduced fear of law

Economic dimesion

○Hamper economic life of innocent individuals

○Bad image of India at global stage

○Economic activity declines with increasing crimes

Course of action

•Strict surveillance : Help from CERT-IN and local cyber security team

•Help from private sector for better technology

•Intelligence collection

•Strict action under IT act, PMLA, IPC

•Awareness campaign ○Nukkad natak

○Help from local NGOs SHGs

○Local leaders

○Target schools, hospitals, community centres, panchayats meeting centre

○Financial literacy campaign

•Training and skill upgradation of youth

•Monitoring of politicians and criminals nexus

Laying off employees due to recession

I am the HR

Course of action

•Deduct remuneration of top executives to reduce costs

•Value of work and ethics should also be considered along with abilities

•Re-skilling of employees

•A choice to work for reduced pay for the time being

•If firing, then 3 month notice period and one time compensation

•Firing must be compassionate and consideration of financial condition of employees

•Promise of prefernce during re-

○Duty as HR vs compassion and humanity

○Loss of livelihood

○Manpower vs Technology

○Lack of business ethics

○Trust and loyalty vs Profits

○Shareholder benefits vs

All stakeholders benefits


hiring process



hike by priv ate

scho ols

○Pare nts prot est


Short term

•Talk to private schools to understand the rationale of hike

•Talk to parents to persuade them and tell the school rationale

•Bring both school management and parents on one table

•Formation of parents association to give formalisation to grievances

•No future fee hike without advance intimation

•Reduce the family burden based on financial status

(EWS families)

Long term

•Take parents association into confidence before making nay decision

•Improvement in quality of education in government schools

•Reasonable ceiling limit for annual fee hike


Legal status

•Foreigners act 1946

•Citizenship act, 1955

Conflict between National interests vs Interests of Human

•One view : India practice of abiding by international

expectations, vasudeva kutumbakam

•Another view : Security threats, demographic bulge, Already India host 1 crore refugees


involved in bribing. Wife is also

IAS officer

○Whether to take soft approach or harsh approach ○Ethics in public relations (integrity, honesty) Vs ethics in private relations (love,

Course of action

•Collect all the information

•Not use any of the things related to corruption maintain own integrity

maintain own integrity



care, trust)

○Responsibility in marriage vs professional duty

○should it be ignored or really one should become harsh

•Convince him using emotional intelligence

(Vibhishna story)

•Take help of family members or mentors

•If still not persuaded then threatened to get separated

•If still not, then file official compaint

•File divorce


○Integrity public life cannot be compromised even for the sake of loved ones.

○Civil service values suggests that one should sacrifice personal life for public life.

○Following Kantian ethics, she should take decisions based on long term gains rather than thinking of short-term loss. ○She should get separated

(divorce) as in future she will face guilt, humiliation and loss of respect from family, society and in service also.

Sexual harrassment at workplace

in online mode

(Obscene comments on personal chat)


○Dignity of women

○Outraging the modesty of women (Section 354 IPC)

○Lack of workplace ethics

○Gender injustice

○Absence of digital space ethics

○Lack of morality in some of the male employees


ng in an




Course of action

Short term

•Ensure there is no law and order situation

•People do not resort to violence

•Provide continuous information to

○Environmental issues



○Social cohesion

○Law and order situation Vested interests

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•Provide continuous information to ○Vested interests

est by

local peo

ple by

hugg ing tree s

○I am the




strat e

people to prevent misinformation

•Convince them their rights and livelihood will be protected

•Investigate the issuse and find whether any involvement of vested interests

•Send a detailed report to state government

Stakeholders who can help

•Mining people : Stop mining for a while till protest is over

•Civil society/NGOs : Build social connect to convince people

•Leader of protestors

•Independenet research organisations : Scientific data on impact of mining on forests and wildlife

Long term

•DM should work with all stakeholder to carry out the overall development of the region.

•Promotion of government schemes like Van Dhan Yojana in the area.

•Education and basic health services

•Social capital building for sustained livelihood

•Ensure the ecological balance by protection of ecologically sensitive areas and allowing mining only where it is legally permissible.

•Recommend to the government for adopting a policy for no-gozone, so that, illegal activity can be identified


Child labour due to poor family conditions

(10.1 miilion

○Childhood Vs Livelihood

○Law Vs Ethics: Whether the child should be punished according to law or should be forgiven as the action is not deliberate.

○Child labour robs children of their childhood

○Lack of social, moral and emotional developments


Child labour, Census


○Compulsion vs. Free will: No child would like to work as child labour if he/she has free will.

○Lack of free-will

○not adequate social safety nets

○Lack of ethics in governance: it shows failure of governance of

the state to fulfil its social contact moral responsibility

Bhopal case of loan

taken by LIC employee and recovered from 17 year old minor


○Lack of compassion

○Poor leadership

○Absence of business ethics

○Lack of care for employees

○Absence of humanity

Sexual harrassment



○Continue in the organisation or resign

○Tackle matter within the organisation or as per law

(file an FIR)

○Compromise with existing state of affairs vs Speaking out against injustice

○Focus on future career vs inner morality

○Follow management advise vs crisis of conscience

○Outraging the modesty of women

○Gender inequality

○Against Article 23


○Exploitation at workplace

○Lack of honesty (As management not taking action against the harrasers)

○Poor leadership

○Lack of business ethics Action as a CEO

Immmediate actions

•Internal enquiry committee

•Ensuring fair enquiry by honest and competent individuals

•Trust building meeting with women employees to giving them the confidence

•Meanwhile separate the department of both (to avoid conflict of interest) and better functioning of the company

Long term actions

•Clearly define sexual


harassment and inappropriate behaviour

•Frequent sensitisation training of all the employees

•Constant evaluation and monthly reports

•Special training of staff and management in how to deal sexual harrassment issues

•Hot lines for anonymous reporting

•Take swift corrective action when sexual harrassment is determined

•Strengthen borader culutre of company to promote women respect and dignity


: Civil servant presenting his views on polarising things in society. E.g. Polarising movie, Religion

○Ethics in public life vs Ethics in private life

○Anonymity vs Social responsibility

○Conduct rules vs Human conscience

○Urge to be part of society vs Discipline in civil service

○Freedom of speech (Article


○Lack of neutrality suggested by Conduct rules

○Not maintaining anonymity

○Difficulties in following inner morality

○Crisis of conscience


•Check the past conduct of the civil servant (To judge the character and track record)

•High level enquiry to understand the need to present his views

•Verify whether it was done to gain political support or involvement of vested interests

•Give him a warning if this is a one off mistake

•Sensitisation training for bureacrats to remain neutral and maintain anonymity


Pregnant children 10 year old girl pregnant with 32 weeks due to court delay and not allowed for abortion

Ethical Issues

•Law vs morality : Following the law in letter not in spirit

•Lack of medical ethics

•Child right

•Right to life

•Dignity and outraging the modesty of women

•Health of the girl

•Social justice

Suggestions for future

•Standard operating procedure for such cases (Trafficking, road accidents, Rape victims)

•Sensitivity training of judges

•Training of doctors in handling such cases

Course of action for me as a human rights activist

•Pursuade chief medical officer for allowing abortion

•In meanwhile provide mental and physical health facilities

•Contact local NGOs for the help

•Go to district collector to ensure a standard operating procedure for future

•If the case goes to court ensure that free legal aid is provided

•As an activist, I would demand a change in

legislations for more compassionate and humane approach

Promises by minister but not fullfilled

Ethical issues

•Lack of leadership qualities

•Breach of trust

•Lack of accountability

•Integrity is not maintained


Building highway in himalayas

for benefit of army

○National security vs Ecology ○National security vs

Livelihood of local people

○Economic development vs Preservation of ecology

○Judiciary in dilemma to whether interfere in National security matters

I am appointed as head of committee to give suggestions

•Detailed study from all perspectives and dimensions

(Social, security,

Environment, Livelihoods)

•Member of committee

should conduct site visits

•Interact with local offcials, local people


•Project must be given go-


ahead with giving priority to national security

•Disaster resilient infrastructure with minimum loss to ecology

•Rehabilitation of local communities

•Oversight committee for continuous monitoring and publishing reports

Making student to come back to school after covid


Course of action

•Ensure minimum

infrastructure is at place

(Desks, Chairs)

•Proper sanitisation of all the premises

•Good teacher pupil ratio

•Extra incentive for teacher for better motivation

•Door to door campaign for awareness of parents and teachers

Drug addiction issue and deaddiction programe

Causes of failures of de-addiction programe

•Traditional in nature with poor participation of governemnt and civil society

•Lack of funds and physical infrastructure

•Never ending supply of drugs

•Nexus of politics, bureacracy and criminals

•Using one size-fits all approach

Course of action

•Access the status of rehab centres and stregthen them by overcoming their problems

•Focus on sources and channels of drug supply and action against it

•Community awareness program with help of NGOs, SHGs, Panchayats

•Special helpline for mental health issues

•Ultimately the goal must be to decriminalise drugs

Resignation of civil

servants due to poor structure, hard postings


Ethical issues

•Keeping personal interest in front of public service

•Punishment to honest officials

•Poor incentive structure

•Lack of civil service values

•Loss to government and society as he served 15


years and got so much of experience


•Revamp incentive mechanism

•360 degree appraisals to understand the difficulties

•Permant board for postings and transfers

•Set accountability of board and appoint only officers with best track record of integrity

•Motivate the civil servants that even hard postings can be utilised as learning


Falsification of covid data to show low number of deaths

Ethical dilemma

•Value of medical ethics vs Directive by government to show less deaths

•Personal integrity vs government directive

•Short term gain of covid free constituency vs long term health implications

Ethical Issues

•Lack of integrity by MLA in such crisis situation

•Lack of scientific temper shown by MLA

•Lack of committement for public service duty

Course of action

Knowing and understanding

•Understand the SOP of data maintenance

•Identify the people assigned with the task

•Look into past records

Action stage

•Arrange brainstorming session with all employees concerned

•Educate them about the importance of maintaining transparency

•Design accountability mechanism

•Use ICT effectively

•Send the report to appropriate authority after




implementat ion of RTI


•Increase in Use of ICT in RTI

•Identification of Genuine RTI activists and protecting them

•Sensitivity training to PIOs

•Strengthen criminal justice system

•Appoinment of PIOs to vacant posts

•Mandatory monthly report of RTI filed and answered. It will raise accountability

•Protection to RTI activists under whistleblowers act



trafficking of a young girl

Ethical issues

•Right to life

•Right against exploitation (Article


•Loss of dignity and respect

•Situation of helplessness

•Lack of social justice

•Bonded labour through human trafficking

Course of action

•Lodge complaint immediately

•Maintain anonymity of victim at all the times

•If possible, obtain the search warrant from judicial magistrate

•The rescuing team must have female officers

•Interview of the girl by female officials

•Arrest the offenders if present on the site

Post rescue procedure

•Legal counselling

•Medical counselling

•Medical care

Remedies for future

•Improve the database

•Good patrolling at locations prone to trafficking

•Special training to policie officers

•Special team at national and state level focus majorly to track and rescue trafficked individuals

•Coordination with railways police


•CCTV cameras at major transit locations : Bus stand, railway station

•Contact with neighbouring nations, especially Nepal,

Bhutan, Bangladesh

Overchargin g in hospitals/an y other wrongdoings in hospitals

Ethical issues

•Compromise medical ethics

•Patient life

•Lack of transparency

•Poor accountability

Course of action

Knowing stage

•Take stock of situation,

•See who all are involved

•Learn the proceudre and laws related

Action stage

•Inform senior management and seek remedy

•Inform CMO

•Inform medical council and seek remedy

Whistle blowing if all the acts fail

Disaster management case study

I am the District magistrate, flood in the area

○ Call emergency meetings of all senior officials for effective planning

○ Assess the available resources

○ Create several teams and assign specific roles

○ Emergency response teams and special helpline

○ Assistance from central government

○ Identify areas (Schools, hospitals) where rescued vicitims can be rahabilitated

○ Broadcast meesages for trapped vicitims

○ Ensure local shopkeeper are not hoarding and creating monopoly

○ Make a team for lost and found articles

Judge the behaviour of company on ethical principles

○ Common good principle

○ Public service principle

○ Utilitarian principle : Greatest good for the greatest number

○ Kantian principle

○ Trust and confidence

○ Duty towards the society

Flow chart in course of action

○ Write in possibilities with arrows

Ethical issues involved

○ Honestly and Integrity

○ Personal vs Professional ethics

○ Impartiality

○ Non-partisanship : Politics related

○ Selflessness

○ Test of moral strength (Morality)

Ethical dilemma

○ Ends vs means

○ Following law vs inner conscience

○ Business ethics vs Profitability

○ Personal ethics vs Professional duty

○ Profitability vs Environment

○ Responsibility vs Escapism

Ethical Issues in different case studies

International ethics

○ Nationalism vs Internationalism

○ Duty towards citizens vs duty towards humanity

○ National interest vs value of peace and humanity

○ Patriotism vs Nationalism

Society Ethics

○ Individual rights vs social interest

○ Traditional values vs Modern democratic values

Environmental ethics

○ Ecology vs Economic development

○ Profitability vs Sustainability

○ Humano cetrism vs Bio centrism

Case studies on Private sector

○ Responsibility and accountability towards all the stakeholders (Customers, Shareholders, Managements , Regulators)

○ Transpareny and disclosure

○ Integrity, loyality and honesty

○ Responsiveness

○ Quality of products and services

End wth Gandhi’s line that Corporates are just the trustees of the people and their ultimate aim must be in public interest

Ethical dilemmas

○ Ends vs Means

○ Responsibility vs Escapism

End of case studies lines

○ As Gandhi ji has rightly said: “I will not let anyone walk through my mind with their dirty feet.”

○ As per a Greek saying: – “let the evil come in this world, let it even dominate this world, but not through me.” If every person has same view than the wrong will never happen.

○ Altruism : As Kant has said, altruism is rational as it is irrational not to help others knowing that someday you also will need their help

○ Gandhi Talisman

○ Vibhishana in Ramayana took the side of truth even against his brother and king Ravana, whereas Karna in Mahabharata remained loyal to his friend, Duryodhana. We all know the results of their choices

Options available

○ Normal going with unfair means

○ The correct means

○ General options

  • Resign
  • Take tranfer

Write Merits and demerits of options in table

Types of training

○ Sensitivity training

○ Role playing training

○ Relaxation training : Yoga course

○ Communication training : Verbal and Non verbal cues

Social Issue case study

○ Intro : Discuss the issue. Some facts, laws etc.

○ Ethical issues : Write all the issues. E.g. Poor water quality, Manual scavenging, Social discrimination. Then write the values inside them.

○ Options available

○ Merits/Demerits of the options

○ Course of action and Justification of the action

Social issues ( E.g. Female foeticide)

○ Write a letter to senior official to start an enquiry

○ Use government schemes ( Beti bachao beti padhao, MGNREGA)

○ Take help of local leaders, teachers, doctors across gender, communities for awareness ○ Social awareness campaign in schools, hospitals and other public places

○ Nukkad Nataks

○ Mobilise local NGOs, civil society

○ Help of local, national media houses to make people aware of the situation

○ Special training, sensitization

○ Make your subordinated aware and educated about the issues so they can spread the message

○ Role model approach. Show role model from the village itself who are successful. Or invite celebrity to raise their enthusiasm

○ Start doing yourself for 1 hour daily to lead by an example

Artificial Intelligence NITI Aayog Doc

7 Principles

○ Principle of Safety and Reliability

○ Principle of Equality

○ Principle of Inclusivity and Non-discrimination

○ Principle of Privacy and security

○ Principle of Transparency

○ Principle of Accountability

○ Principle of protection and reinforcement of positive human values

Ethical Concerns

○ Safe and reliable deployement : Black box problem

○ Can the relevant stakeholders understand why the specific decision was made : Fraud detection, Credit scoring

○ Consistency across stakeholders : No cognitive biases

○ Incorrect decision leading to exclusion from particular services : Benficiary identification system, Criminal identification system

○ Accountability of decision : Self-driving car making an accident : Who is accountable? Programmer, Owner, Company etc.

○ Privacy risks : Privacy concerns over training data

○ Security risks

○ Impact on Jobs

○ Legal responsibility

Stakeholders in AI

○ Government

○ Private sector

○ Business

○ Citizens

○ Research community

○ Regulators

○ Standard setting body

○ Security auditors

Relevant Constitution articles

○ Ar. 14 : Right to equality

○ Ar. 15, 16 : Right against discrimination

○ Ar. 21 : Right to life and healthcare

○ Ar 21 : Right to privacy

○ Ar 38 : State DPSP for economic equality

○ Transparency and accountability : Superme court

Ethic in International relations

Significance of International ethics

  • Principles laid down by UN
  • Sustainable development goals
  • Common but differentiated responsibilities
  • Easy loans and aids to poor and developing countries
  • India support during nepal earthquake, Solving Srilanka Crisis
  • Global collaboration during covid crisis
  • Non alignment movement (NAM)

Ethical Challenges

  • Rising inequality due to globalisation
  • Neo-colonialism in name of uplifting from poverty
  • Concept of good terrorist and bad terrorist
  • Lack of responsibilities by developed countries