Chapter 17. International Relations Notes for UPSC Mains

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Africa

AFRICA general picture

  • Growth
    • African Development Bank summit in India
    • India Africa Summit
    • Asia – Afrca Growth corridor – AAGC
      • Vision Document of African Development Led by India and Japan
      • Africa is one of the Destnations of this idea. It also intends to undertake expenditure in South Asia, South East Asia
      • Focus on Medium Scale Consumer Industries like Pharma , Digital Connectivity ; SKILL development , Projects in Social Sector like Health, Education
      • Green and Energy Efficient
      • Ensure Sustainability Of Debt
    • Economic
      • Trade
        • India Africa at 70 billion $
        • China at 200 billion $
      • Investment
        • Indian ~ 40 billion $ in the last decade
        • Chinese ~ 200 billion $
      • But last year, India Eclipsed China in FDI
    • Line of credit worth 8 billion $
      • 1 billion $ under ITEC
        • India Technical and Economic Cooperation program
        • # Soft Diplomacy #NRI_help #Economic Diplomacy
  • Converging interests
    • Economic
      • Africa as a market
      • Africa as a source of raw materials
      • Oil
        • 15% of crude oil from Africa
        • Nigeria briefly became the largest source of imports to India
        • Saudi decision to charge a premium on oil supply to Asia
        • Indian firms in Mozambique, South Sudan, Egypt
      • Other raw materials
        • Mozambique – pulses , Cashew- Ivory Coast, Ghana- Gold
      • Land market
        • Outsourcing of farming
        • Countries like Kenya inviting Indian companies to buy land and engage in farming
        • Big firms like Bharati, Adani getting involved
        • Imports from these will help in food security in India
        • China also present
      • COMESA
        • Common Market for East and South Africa
        • Africa’s largest economics community
        • India- COMESA engaging toggether since 2012
        • Suggestion – PTA / FTA with COMESA
      • Blue Economy
        • Coordinating Sagarmala with Operation Phakisa of S Africa
      • Generic Medicines
        • Pharmacy of the Poor
        • Medical tourism
        • 15% tourists – medical reasons
        • India line of credit to Rwanda for purchase of medicines and medical equipments
      • Health
        • 70% of AIDS in Africa
  • Investments
    • Pipeline by India in Sudan, South Sudan
    • Significant control over Sudan oil
    • Road project in Rwanda
    • Oil fields in Mozambique
    • Overall 40 billion $ in last decade
      • Although eclipsed by China
  • Political
    • India Africa summit
      • Elaboration required
    • Helps earn goodwill
    • India, USA, China
  • Strategic Angle
    • India to help upgrade Mozambique security forces capabilities
      • Cooperate to counter security challenges in Indian Ocean region
    • China’s growing presence – Djibouti tp Africa in OBOR
    • Possible Export destination if Make in India weapons
    • Possible Space Diplomatic Cooperation
  • UNSC
    • India and Africa support each others (Africa as a whole) inclusion in the UNSC Permanent Council
  • Nuclear
    • Namibia one of the largest producers of Uranium
    • But, Pelindaba treaty prohibits trading nuclear with countries non signatories of NPT . Calls for non proliferation
    • However, Namibia has already signed the treaty with India in 2009, and it is confirmed that it will honour this treaty
  • Scientific
    • ISA
  • Historical
    • Anti colonial stance
    • NAM
    • Gandhi
  • Cultural
    • project mausam
    • Racial
      • Apparent racial related deaths of Congolese student
      • AAP minister publically maligning at the middle of the night
      • Counter attacks against Indians in Africa
      • Solution
        • Interaction
          • Mohalla sabha
        • Sensitisation of cultures
        • Incredible India campaign that targeted against molestation of foreigners were only white
        • Clear guidelines for Africans to complain
        • Frequent interaction with embassies
        • Also stringent action against those within the community doing illegal acts – such as Drug Peddlars so that local community members also don’t fear the genera African community and recognise only a hangdul responsible
        • Bezbaruah commitee recommendations be adopted – See NE
    • Drug menace
      • African peddlers
      • India- Mozambique MoU to jointly counter
    • Solar Mama
      • African Women trained in India in use, assembling and repair of solar lanterns
  • Terrorism
  • Sea route piracy
  • Elaboration required
  • Cons
    • Potential battleground – China, USA
    • Drug
    • Human rights, Environment abuse
    • Indians being caught in cross fire and terror
  • Elaboration required
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EGYPT

  • 2nd largest economy of Africa
  • India 2nd largest ecport destination
  • Infrastructure – Suez Economic zone  

Mozambique

  • ONGC share in the Rovuma gas fields
    • Will be converted to LNG and then exported
    • World’s 2nd largest LNG export site