Chapter 20. International Relations Notes for UPSC Mains

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South America

Economic

  • India’s 2 way trade of 50 billion dollars
    • Up from 4 billion dollars a decade ago
    • But still only 5% of Indian trade
  • Trade of what
    • Exports-, automobiles, cotton
    • Imports – gold, minerals
  • Agreement
    • Currently PTA – Preferential Trade Agreement with MERCOSUR
    • 2/3 rd of trade via this route
    • Plans to widen and create FTA
  • B2B
    • ONGC , Reliance are in process of bagging exploration rights and setting refineries

BRAZIL

  • History
    • Brazil – Goa connected culturally since 16th century because of common Portugese linkage
    • Bulk of Brazilian cattle stock is of Indian origin
    • India Brazil strategic partnership since 2006
  • Political
    • G4
      • Both support each others entry into UNSC
    • BRICS
    • Other forum
      • IBSA, BASIC, G 20
  • Nuclear
    • Brazil member of NSG
    • Nuclear trade can fructify
  • Economic
    • Trade of around 10 billion $
    • Crude Oil- Diesel forms 50% of that
      • Brazilian oil export to China is slowing
      • India has an opportunity to take over
    • Indian exports mostly manufactured goods
    • Most of the trade through MERCOSUR PTA route
      • Explained above
  • Culture
    • Ayurveda, Yoga popular in Brazil
  • Other areas of cooperation
    • India can learn from the successful Bolsa Familia Program, on which DBT is based
    • Brazil based ethanol generation program highly succesful
    • Both nations at similar levels of economy
    • India can use the Latin American region to launch satellites
  • Challenge
    • Distance
    • Limited people to people interaction
    • Troubled Brazilian economy
    • India doesn’t have an embassy in all the countries
    • China surging ahead- Has FTAs in comtrast to India’s PTA

Colombia

  • Civil war ended
  • Between govt and leftists FARC
  • 50 years turmoil
  • FARC – 10 billion $ drug exports to US- also faced US backlash
  • FARC to give up arms – will get seats in the assembly for 10 years (2026)
  • Took place as the founder Velez died in 2008
  • Though peace not certain as no agreement with another group ELN- although a ceasefire in place with it too
  • Case Study – Naxal, NE
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