Human Trafficking- Causes, Types, Consequences | UPSC Notes

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Human Trafficking (Article 23)

Statistics — 

  1. 8200 cases in 2016 (NCRB Data) | 44% from WB only
  2. 33% chargesheeted — pathetic! 
  3. In last 3 years — number of human trafficking cases have doubled — bulk from Bengal || 2x in 3 years

There has been no specific law to deal with the trafficking of humans — one of the largest organised crime violating basic human rights.

Human Trafficking upsc

Life after rescue from Trafficking (women)

Human Trafficking

Government Measures — 

  1. The Trafficking of Persons (Prevention, Protection and Rehabilitation) Bill, 2018
  2. SLSA award compensation 
  3. POCSO Act, 2012
  4. CrPC and Helpline 
  5. NGOs 

The Trafficking of Persons (Prevention, Protection and Rehabilitation) Bill, 2018

(Passed by Lok Sabha — Monsoon Session (2018))

Human Trafficking article 23

Positives —

  1. Robust and comprehensive policy framework — prevention, protection, rescue and rehabilitation — everything is included
  2. Elaborated definition of the act of Trafficking — marriage, begging, selling etc (prostitution is NOT included)
  3. Protection of the witness
  4. Include the confidentiality of the victim — recording of their statement in friendly environment 
  5. Rehabilitation fund for the first time. 
  6. Expedited justice delivery mechanism — fast-track and designated courts
  7. International collaboration for trans-border trafficking — Anti-Trafficking Bureau 
  8. Better administration and coordination among multi-stakeholders by the Bureau 
  9. Strict penal provisions 
  10. Strict and comprehensive surveillance system of the offenders to avoid repetition of offence and security in general
    1. Bureaus will also develop and monitor database of every crime under this Act.

Criticism of the Bill

  1. It will criminalise sex workers and transgender 
    1. Sex workers who are into the business voluntarily will be considered as ‘trafficked’ and thus will be put in rehab centres
    2. They won’t be able to make complaints to the police in case of any exploitation, because of the fear of loss of livelihood 
    3. This can increase the crime and violence against such sex workers, owing to their silence and inability to report to police.
    4. Law should differentiate between trafficking and consensual sex for transgenders and sex workers. It should legalise the latter. 
  2. The definition of trafficking is not much elaborated and comprehensive — ignores the cases of organ trade, sex tourism, clinical trials, orphanage tourism 
  3. The law is poorly drafted creating much confusion — subjectivity!
  4. The definition of ‘victim’ is not comprehensive — includes only the one reduced by the police, ignores the rescued ones by the NGOs, friends etc 
  5. Expedite justice delivery mechanism is not much appealing and far from practicability. 
  6. No new courts or judges are mentioned to expedite justice.
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Verdict — “The Bill is by a well-intentioned Ministry with wrong advisors, but overall it is a wasted opportunity.