Introduction to Hazards and Disaster | Definition, Examples, Diagrams

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  • India’s vulnerability
    • 85% to single or multiple disaster
    • High density, poverty, urbanisation
    • India one of the most vulnerable to climate change and associated disaster

Types of Crises

  • Crises caused by acts of nature. These can further be divided into the following sub-categories:
    • Climatic events: cyclones and storms (associated sea erosion), floods and drought
    • Geological events: earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides and avalanches;
  • Crises caused by environmental degradation and disturbance of the ecological balance;
  • Man Made
    • Crises caused by accidents. These, again, can be further classified into: industrial and nuclear mishaps and fire related accidents;
    • Crises caused by biological activities: public health crises, epidemics etc;
    • Crises caused by hostile elements: war, terrorism, extremism, insurgency etc;
    • Crises caused by disruption/failure of major infrastructure facilities including communication systems, large-scale strikes etc; and
    • Crises caused by large crowds getting out of control.

EARTHQUAKE

Vulnerability

  • History
    • Earthquake in Kashmir – 2005- 1 lakh deaths
    • Bhuj, Koyna, examples required
  • Geographical spread
    • 60% in High Seismic Zones
    • Norteast, Bihar, Uttarakhand, Himachal, J & K in zone 5, Bhuj – 3 plates
    • Delhi in zone 4
    • Northen Plane – Zone 3 and 4
    • 6.9 Bhuj earthquake 15k deaths when similar has litlte impact in Japan
  • Physics
    • Indian plate moving at a rate of 1 cm every year. Both the plates are said to be locked
    • Results in accumulation of energy which builds up stress
    • The sudden release of stress is visible in the form of earthquake
    • Seismologists feel that the tecctonic plates near epicenter of Nepal still locked- building up of stress- can lead to a major earthquake any time
    • NIDM has warned of an impending > 8.2 earthquake anytime in Himalaya
    • Also due to Triplate – Bhuj, Japan
    • Man Made
      • Explosions – Nuclear
      • Rerservoir Induced
        • 1967 Koyna was largest ever reservior triggered earthquake in the world due to Shivaji Sagar lake
  • Secondary Effect
    • Tsunami
    • Fires
    • Landslide, Avalanche
    • Floods
  • Precaution
    • GPS
    • R&D
    • Vulnerability map
      • Current seismic survey on a scale of 1: 1.25 million. Needs to be improved to 1:1000 for micro analysis in zones 4 and 5
      • GIS and GPS for rea time monitoring
    • Making people aware
    • Early Warning System
      • Eg Japan – 15s time – due to early detection of Body Waves
    • Building Code , 2005
      • Issues – 2nd ARC
        • Guidelines seldon used due to loss of awarenss ,higher costs
      • Way out – 2nd ARC
        • Dmeonstration Camps
        • Online registry of permissions
        • Simplified versions of rules should be available online
        • Suitable financial package for retrofitting of old buildings
        • 3rd party audit of public and private infra

FLOODs

  • See Water
  • See NCERT, Geo 11th -3rd, Ch- 8 , page 12
  • Damage
    • UN – 7 billion $ a year in India
    • Salinity of soil
    • Positive – alluvium recharge, water table recharge
  • Causes
    • Natural
      • Excessive Rainfall / Cloudbursts
      • Excessive rainfall in catchment areas of rivers
      • Storm Surge
      • Poor Natural Drainage –
        • Brahmaputra – Constricted path , Percolation is low , Braided channels . Similarly Kosi
      • Synchronisation of Flood Peaks of various rivers and tributaries
      • Landslides obstructing rivers
      • GLOF
        • Glacial Lake Outburst Floods
        • When the lake formed by a glacier suddenly bursts
        • Eg in Uttarakhand Floods
    • Artificial
      • Role of Large Dams
        • NGT fined GVK constructions for creation of a dam that worsened the Uttarakhand 2013 floods
        • In Contrast, Tehri Dam ensured that the disaster did not escalate
      • Role of Fillin gup of wetlands
        • NIDM on the case study of Mumbai floods

750 acres of mangrove wetland filled and 1k acre of mangrove cut

Course of Mithi river diverted

    • Concretisation
    • Silting
    • Climate Change
    • Role of upper Riparian countries – Nepal, China
  • Steps
    • Structural Solutions
      • Embankments / Artifical levees
        • Flood Wall
      • Dams – Tehri role
      • Channel Dredging
        • DESILTING
        • Chitale Committee report – May 17 – 55
        • Preventive – Good Agri practises, Focus on confluence points, No one size fit all, Desilting of main channel to GUIDE the river flow, SAND REGISTRY, Give the silt away
        • Increases the capacity of rivers
      • Chnanelisation of rivers
        • Retaining the original channel of rivers by directing the course of the river
      • Interlinking of rivers at the local level
    • Non Structural
      • Flood Plain Zoning
        • Idea that flood plains belong to rivers and any intrusion in it can be counterproductive
        • Hence removal of encroachments etc in the flood plains
        • ZONES of Flood Plains just like CRZ
      • Flood Forecasting
        • CWCA
        • Did not have any units in Uttarakhand – Hence forecasts incomplete – CAG
      • Flood Proofing
        • Proof a particular area from flood
    • Normal solutions
      • Wetland Restoration
      • Watershed Management
      • afforestation
      • International cooperation
  • ARC
    • There should be a master plan for flood control and management for each flood prone basin.
    • Adequate flood-cushion should be provided in water storage projects. In flood prone region, more focus hsould be on flood mitigation rather than electricity generation or irrigation
    • There should be strict regulation of settlements in the flood plain zones along with flood proofing
    • Others
      • International cooperation
      • General points on Disaster Management
      • Other stakeholders- Police, Health, Communication, Electricity , Meteorology

Need for Holistic Water Management to Reduce Water Disasters

  • Water related disasters can’t be addressed unless larger issues like water management through a National Water Policy are properly addressed. 
  • Central Water Commission
  • A major impediment is the ‘segmented policy attention’ from a number of departments and there are multiple union departments involved with different aspects of water management. This leads to time-consuming repeated consultations, constant inter-departmental references and meetings and weak coordination and lack of a holistic approach.
  • So the CWC should be restructured into a statutory autonomous inter-disciplinary Commission, with maximum powers, in order to deal with policy and reforms, center – state and inter-state issues.
  • Using powers under Entry 56 in the Union List, a Law may be enacted to set up mechanisms for collection of data, managing flow in rivers and release of water from reservoirs, so as to prevent disasters, with interstate ramifications.
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Urban flooding

Mumbai, Chennai floods and Srinagar floods point to the need to address the issue.

Causal Factors

  • Climate change has impacted Indian Monsoon pattern and has led to more frequent extreme weather events
  • Land use changes
    • Deforestation
    • Wetland management as they act as the buffer
      • Mithic virdi and Coastal wetlands in Mumbai 2006 floods
      • Encroachments, garbage disposal, siltation have reduced their water holding capacity
      • Siltation of rivers and canals e.g. in case of Chennai, Buckingham canal and Adyar river degradation.
    • Lack of soft grounds due to concretisation-> flash floods
    • Flood plain encroachment
  • Urban planning
    • Haphazard construction with improper drainage systems
    • No attention towards storm water drainage. In Chennai, only 1/3 rd roads have storm water drains. In Mumbai they have low carrying capacity
    • Use of storm water drains for disposal of sewage defeats their purpose.
    • Rain water harvesting structures are not mandatory and roof top water also drains through the streets.
    • Clogging of drains with garbage
  • Improper management of reservoir which supply drinking water. Release of water from the Chembarambakkam reservoir  in Chennai worsened the flood situation. The normal water level is above the prescribed limits, hence releasing water at times of heavy rainfall becomes necessary to protect the reservoir.
  • Lack of early warning system

Addressing these factors – Better make a TABLE

  • Disaster vulnerability mapping for the entire city 
  • Legal and institutional framework for urban lakes
  • Community awareness and participation for water bodies rejuvenation e.g.Tamil Nadu’s Noyyal river project.
  • Drainage systems in sync with natural drainage patterns.
  • Waste management for unclogged drains e.g. City compost policy can help.
  • Rain water harvesting structures

CYCLONES

  • Issue
    • Wind – Blows away
    • Inundation of Salty water -Agriculture may be destructed foreved
    • Storm surge and flooding
    • Community IT network
  • Risk reduction measures
    • Mangroves
      • ARC – where Magroves present – Tsunami less
    • Flood management measures
    • Embankments against Storm surges
    • Building Code
    • Demonstration Camps
    • IMD

ARC Cyclone Shelters / also Flood shelter

  • In densely populated coastal areas, where large scale evacuations are not always feasible, public buildings can be used as cyclone shelters. 
  • These buildings can be so architecturally designed, so as to provide a blank face with a minimum number of apertures in the direction of the prevailing winds. The shorter side of the building should face the storm, so as to impart least wind resistance. 
  • Green belts can be used in front of these buildings to reduce the impact of the storm.
  • Steps taken
    • National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project under NDRM
    • NDM Plan, 2016 – Ministry of earth sciebces
    • Met satellite

Cloudburst

See Geo notes

HAIL STORM

  • Anti Hail Guns
    • Sends shockwaves that prevents hail formation
    • Being used by Apple orchards in Himachal
  • Cloud Seeding
  • Adaptive measures
    • Normal suggestions

Tsunami

  • See Geo notes
  • Risk reduction measures
    • EWS
    • Embankment – Issue – Japan ineffective in the Tsunami 2011
    • Site Planning and Land Management
    • Construction of community halls – with proper design – At higher locations
    • Other FLOOD related MEASURES

DROUGHT

  • See NCERT, Geo 11th -3rd, Ch- 8 , page 13
  • Absence or Defiency of rainfall in a region for an extended period of time leading to general suffering in soicety
  • 70% of India affected by Drought
  • Why ?
    • Erratic monsoons
    • Lopsided Water Managemetn policies
    • Deforestation
    • Agriculture
    • Deforestation
    • Poor Irrigation system
    • Write all points synchronous to Tejaswi’s Urban Flood – Climate, Land Management, Agri
  • Types
    • Meterological
      • <75% raing=fall
    • Hydrological
      • Eater flow in streams low
    • Agricukture
      • Water in soil
  • Recent redefine the drought and replaced it with Deficient rainfall
    • If <10 % decline in 20-40% of India – Deficient year
  • 2nd ARC on drouught declaration
    • Process be standardised
      • Say when 20% of the normally cropped area remains unsown till October (for Kharif)
    • Although, best left with states
      • Different levels of Agri, state support
    • Use of IRS satellites to accurately capture
    • Why so much hullaballoh
      • Because only after drought has been declared can relief work start
      • Only then will agri taxes be waived
  • SC direction – Not imp

Has directed to

  • Create National Disaster Mitigation Fund
    • We already have NDRF – overlap
  • National Plan on Mitigation and Crisis management
    • Done
  • National Policy for Drought
  • Standardise methodology for declaring a drought
    • 2nd ARC – Say when 20% of the normally cropped area remains unsown till October (for Kharif)
    • Right now only a Manual for Drought Declaration , 2009
  • NDRF cadre for drought
  • Esxpedite implementation of NFSA

This way of drawing is awesome – Use it once/ twice in every paper. Not more

Impact

Short term solution

Long term solution

    • Scarcity leads to death and starvation
    • Ensure constant supply of food and fodder to FPSs
    • No urban bias in distribution of water.
    • Drought code for rationing use of water.
    • Emergency action under NFSA by all states: SC has also directed it.
    • MGNREGA – 150 days
    • Defer Farm loans- Drought Crisis Management Plan, 2015

 

 

    • Water Framework Bill
    • Israel cooperation during India Water week for innovative water saving technologies – MICRO IRRIGATION
    • Rainwater harvesting
    • Traditional – Alhars

Agrarian distress leading to distress migration, loss of livelihood and debt trap and farmer suicides

Contingency plan will involve

  • Use of MNREGA for providing alternate employment and ensure timely payment with wages compatible with statutory minimum wages. SC has directed release of funds.
  • Strengthen MSP regime for procurement since due to global integration, low production does not translate into high prices
  • Waive off farmer loans and provide crop loss and price volatility compensation

Encourage agri- forestry

Awareness among farmers related to suitable ploughing and cropping techniques

    • Watershed Management Water use efficiency by micro irrigation techniques: PM Krishi Sinchai Yojana for increasing irrigation cover
    • Rationalise water and power subsidies
    • Declaring MSP well before Kharif sowing season
    • Drought resistant crop varieties.
    • GM
    • Cropping pattern management- Less water intensive crops or drought resistant crops (Odisha- paddy).Also incentivise farmers to grow crops most affected by domestic supply pressures and timely import of such commodities.
    • MNREGA for watershed management
    • Ministry of Earth Sciences has constituted the Monsoon Mission of India to improve monsoon forecasts. This year accurate forecast lead to better crop management practice and hence fewer production losses.

 

    • Afforestation and Agro Forestry

 

    • Cloud seeding – weather modification technique to induce rainfall
      • Issue – Loss to other state, mixed result in checking drought, floods, water cycle

Heat waves accompany droughts

    • Odisha case study: awareness campaigns and suspension of activities during peak hours.
    • Daytime shelters with potable water
    • Community capacity building 
    • Weather forecast mechanisms to be strengthened
    • Detailed Plan formulation with source for funding.

Power crisis

  • 70% of energy needs are derived form thermal power which Low reservoir levels lead to shut down of the plants.
  • Thermal power plants are located in drought prone regions e.g. Raichur Thermal Power plant in Karnataka. More plants are being planned.

 

 

    • Shift to renewable power.
    • Energy Mix
    • Super critical plants
    • Strategic Location

Social and International

  • Caste ( Dalits drining from wells)
  • Women (fetch water from far off places)
  • Inter State
  • International – Teesta

 

 

 

Other

Effective drought management has three important components:

  • drought intensity assessment and monitoring; need early forecasting so that an informed choice regarding crop varieties to be sown, planning the area to be sown and allocation of water resources can be done
  • drought declaration and prioritization of areas for drought management;
  • development and implementation of drought management strategies
    • Co-ordination of Centre with states to implement the Manual for Drought Management 2009.

 

    • Drought management cells creation at state level
    • Vulnerability maps
    • Corporate sector be involved via CSR
    • Local cooperation

HEAT WAVES

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See vision feb 18 – 62

What ?

  • Period of Abnormally High temperature ( maximum temperature is more than 3 degrees abive the normal average termperature for 3 consecutive days . Generally referred to mean temperatures above 45 degrees though)
  • Intensified in the plain areas due to simultaneous low of dry winds called as Loos
  • Construction workers most vulnerable

Reasons

  • Urban Heat Island
  • El Nino
  • Climate Change
  • Warming Indian Ocean fastest ( continentality) , leads to inadequate rainfall over India

Heat waves Issue

  • HEAT WAVE RELATED DEATHS HAVE FALLEN 90% in last 2 years from 2k in 2015 to 200 now
  • Frequency and intensity is on rise due to climate change.
  • Lack of general awareness regarding symptoms of heat related illness
    • Most important thing to do in case of a heat related illness is to stabilise the body temperature using ice slabs or cold water. But this basic treatment was not administered in the local health centre since doctor could not diagnose properly.
  • Lack of intervention by state (A.P, telangana): Heat waves are not classified as national calamities 

Consequences

  • Crop failures and issues faced by Livestock
  • deaths from hyperthermia: Labour who needs to work outside is at greatest risk
  • Diseases
  • Power shortage due to increased use of air conditioning
    • Vicious cycle and environmental effects
  • and use of pumps to draw ground water from greater depths
  • Economic impact – change of time table, construction sites closure

Way forward

  • Western European Model
    • 2003 – around 70k people esp old people died due to severe heat wave
    • Steps – Capital Intensive
    • Geriatic care, AC
  • Odisha model
    • Timings in offices, construction sites, schools were modified in accordance with heat conditions
    • Water Distribution Booths
    • Districts facing high temperatures devise plans at local level
  • Gujarat Model
    • Mapping of high risk zones, Early warning system
    • Outreach program
  • Classify Heat Wave as Natural calamities and NDMA issue Guidelines

Fire

  • Recent fire in Orissa Hospital ICU where 13 people killed
  • Situation
    • FICCI report
      • 95% shortage of fire station
      • 95% firemen
      • 80% vehicles
    • National Building code, 2005 widely violated
    • Short circuits common due to loose wiring
    • Others – Heat, Cooking practises, Loose wire and Power Pilfigerage
  • Special care needed for hospitals
  • Draft Fire Bill, 2016
    • Fire Tax to provide Free service
    • Fire fund
    • One fire and emergency service for each state
    • Accountability onus falls on the property owner
    • States may declare this as Emergency Service
  • COAL Belt Fire
    • Way out
      • Focus on Nitrogen foam,
      • Train route change and
      • Use of Prefabricated structures to quickly resettle people
  • Coal mine Collapse
    • Lalmatia
    • Reasons
      • Illegal Mining without ensuring safety
      • Outsourcing of mining works to private company – Inadequate incentives to work on safety
      • Lack of Safety Equipment – Capacity
      • Underground Fire going on for decades – Near Jharia coal Fields
      • Unscientific use of Explosives
      • Lack of awareness
      • Inadequate Central Monitoring Mechanism
      • Not following SoP

Landslide

  • See NCERT, Geo 11th -3rd, Ch- 8 , page16
  • 15% affected
  • Issues – Himalayas, Western Ghats ( steep), sedimentary, rainfall, climate change, defence, Industry, Dam( CAG),

Avalanche

  • Issue – Siachen glacier
  • Movement of snow cover on a slope generally under the influence of gravity and against the resisting forces such as friction and resistance by shrubs
  • Causes
    • Fixed causes –
      • Topography – Slope
      • No Vegetation cover
    • Variable factors
      • Wind velocity
      • Depth of snow (Load )
      • Temperature
      • Vibrations
        • Earthquake
        • Man made- Construction , Defence – explosive
  • Regions
    • Kargil, Siachen, Ladakh
    • Himachal – Kulu, Spiti . Uttarakhand – Badrinath
  • Way out
    • Prediction – Snow slope analysis
    • Satellites, Drones

Industrial disaster

  • Nuclear – Fukushima, Chernobyl
  • Oil Spilling – BP
  • Pollutants – Allleged Mercury spilling in Unilever plant in TN
  • Construction sites – Bangladesh garment factory collapse
  • Methyl Isocyanta
    • 1984
    • Casualties differ
      • 20k told by PM in parliament
      • Only 5k deaths acknowledged
      • 10k death certificates
    • Comparison with BP
      • BP deep water oil spill in gulf of Mexico
        • 2010
        • Killing only 11
        • But massive damage to ecosystem
        • Paid 19 billion dollars
      • While union carbide paid less than 400 million dollars for tens of thousands of death
      • Gov’t of India bore maximum responsibilities
      • Under US law, BP can also be sued individually
    • Steps
      • Factorries Act, 2016 – Focuses on Safety
      • Environment Protection Act, 1986
      • Society vocal
      • Tech solutions to complain, monitor
      • International Partners, NGOs
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OIL Spills

  • Ill effects
    • Environmental
      • Accidental consumption is toxic to most organisms
      • Loads feathers of birds
        • Birds can’t fly as lift generation is reduced
        • They die due to Hypothermia as the furs can no longer capture and provide heat
      • Affects eggs of fish
      • Starvation of the young ones as mothers can’t locate the young ones by scent
      • Oil increases the Albedo which hampers with Photosynthesis degrading the entire food chain
      • Reduced DO – Dissolved Oxygen
    • Economic
      • Fishermen
      • Making up by drilling extra oil
      • Cost of clearing up
      • Tourism
      • Total cost of BP oil spill in Gulf of Mexico including enviomnmental damage was 19 billion $ – effects being felt till date
  • Difficulty in controlling
    • Wind – spreads the geographical spread
    • Difficult to separate water and oil
    • Mix with sand and debris to form a “chocolate mousse”
  • India
    • Chennai
      • Local people came forward — Shows way forward
    • MSV chitra off Mumbai coast
      • Damage worth 500 crore
      • Mumbai and JN terminal off for days
    • Such spills can also take place by the proposed IPI pipeline, canvassing of LNG terminals
  • Solution
    • Environmental
      • Oil zapper bacteria – Provide nutrient cover for it to multiply – are GM
      • Bregoli
        • A by product from paper industry
      • Others like saw dust, pet hair, etc
    • Anti Collision
    • Satellite Tracking , Drones
    • Taking help of locals as in Chennai, Integration of Navy, Coast Guard and Local Institutes
    • International help
      • India, Sri Lanka Navy join exercise for oil spill management
      • HADR
    • R&D fool proof – esp related to Fracking which has greater chance of intermixing with water
    • Legal
      • Need for a comprehensive Legal mechanism
      • National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan since 1996
        • But Implementation weak
      • Now need to ammend it to make consistent with Bunker convention that India ratified recently (bunker because that’s where oil is stored in ships )
        • Provides adequate and fast compensation for damage caused by oil spills
        • All ships above a tonnage threshold have to get themselves insured
        • Without which entry and exit from India is barred
        • Applies to alll Indian ships even in foreign waters and international ship in Indian waters

STAMPEDE and Crowd Management

  • Sabrimala , Patna , Uphaar Cinemal Hall
  • Acts – DM act, Indian Police Act
  • Recommendation
    • Constant monitoring of crowds for locating Hazard Point
    • Public Address system with loudspeakers at crowded points
    • Role and resposibility for various stakholders be lidted – Even organiser, Police, District Administration
    • Police should be actively inolved in Menu assesmments and Menu Checks
    • Generators and circuit breakers shouls be kept at isolation away from mischievous elements
    • 3-4 m between row of 5-6 shops through which Piligrims can escapes and less fire hazard
    • Alternative routes to release crowd pressure and accessibility to emergencey exits at all time
    • Deployment of SNAKE LINE approach – Rajrappa
    • Administration should not hesitate to refuse entry to VIPs if it leads to saferty concerns
    • Consideration of available traffick facilities, parking – in Site selection

Forest fire

  • Issue
    • 50% of India vulnerable – Forest survey
    • PSC – Frequemcy Has risen by 50% late;y
  • Regions
    • Central India – Orissa, Chattisgarh, MP – most prone
    • Northeastern region
    • Uttarakhand regions
  • Caused mostly by human factors
    • Accidently
      • by tourists
      • Sparks from Transformers
      • In the process of scaring away Wild Animals
    • Voluntary by
      • Poachers who want to direct animals out tot the periphery
      • Slash and burn by farmers – Esp NE
      • Mafia for timber and vacated forest land
  • Natural
    • Lightining
    • Drought and rubbing
    • Chir forests burn very fast
    • Introduction of exotic tree species – which are more susceptible
  • Effect
    • Loss of biodiversity
    • Threat to human settlement
    • Water run off increases in a burnt land
    • Black carbon – Greenhouse effect
    • Forest soil affected
    • Health hazard – CO, PM 2.5, Hg
  • Positive effects
    • Removal of pests, diseases
    • Some plants depend on forest fires to sustain life- Fire breaks open bark and helps spread seeds
    • Nutrient content of soil increases
    • Undercover destroyed reducing competition for bigger plants
  • Measures
    • Fire lines or buffer belts
    • Ponds inside
    • Remove Chir pine
      • By Broad leaved tree
      • MGNREGA for collecting broken twigs esp of Chir Pines
      • Sweeping Machine
    • Joint forest management
    • CSR funds for Awareness of locals
      • Always use this CSR funds for awareness – instead of just writing awareness
    • Drones to detect
    • Coordination – Fire, Forest and Locals
    • PSC – National Policy

Epidemics

  • The complex nature of control of epidemics is evident from the fact that in the Constitution of India all the three legislative lists of the Seventh Schedule enumerate some aspects of the matter as follows: List-I; entry 28 “quarantine” and entry 81 “inter-State quarantine”; List-II; entry 6 “Public health and sanitation”; List-III; entry 29 “prevention of the extension from one State to another of infectious or contagious diseases”.
  • The Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897 continues to deal with management of epidemic related diseases. It is an omnibus legislation which essentially supercedes all laws in force in the event of outbreak or a threatened outbreak of a ‘dangerous epidemic disease’ and authorizes the Union and State Governments (when authorized by the Union), to resort to all necessary measures to deal with the emergency. The Act also empowers search of vessels and other means of transport and detention and segregation of any persons suspected to be suffering from an epidemic disease. 
  • The Public Health Emergency Bill 
  • It enables the Union or State Governments to declare a particular area as ‘epidemic or bio-terrorism affected’. 
  • Upon such declaration, action can be initiated which apart from measures like inspection and quarantine etc., also empowers government to prohibit activities which lead to or are likely to lead to epidemics or bio-terrorism.  
  • The manner in which the Disaster Management Act, 2005 defines the term ‘disaster’ leaves no doubt that an epidemic of extraordinary severity spreading rapidly is covered by it. The Act also overrides the provision of any other law (Section 72). As such, it is clear that management of epidemics-related crisis would also fall within the jurisdiction of the NDMA. NDRF needs to be equipped to handle the cases of bio-terrorism.

Creeping Emergencies

  • Disasters can also be classified as ‘slow onset’ disasters and ‘rapid onset’ disasters. Earthquakes, cyclones, floods, tsunamis would fall under the category of rapid onset disasters; climate change (global warming), desertification, soil degradation, and droughts, would fall under the category of slow onset disasters. Slow onset disasters are also termed as ‘Creeping Emergencies’.
    • Desertification / Land Degradation – See GEO notes – 50% of India affected

Sea Erosion

  • The landward displacement of the shoreline caused by the forces of waves and currents is termed as erosion. 
  • The impact of the event is not always seen immediately, but it is equally important when we consider loss of property that it causes. It takes months or years to note the impact. So, this is generally classified as a â€œlong term coastal hazard”. 
  • Anthropological effects that trigger beach erosion are: construction of artificial structures, mining of beach sand, offshore dredging, or building of dams.