Rat-hole Mining, Registration of Marriages , Sex-Ratio In India, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV), HELICOPTER PARENTING | UPSC Notes

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Rat-hole Mining UPSC
  • Rat-hole Mining is illegal and banned by NGT — cause of major losses of lives in mining | Meghalaya – 12 feared dead
  • Punjab becomes the first State to have an all women Passport-Seva Kendra
  • Rajasthan — First Government-run community milk banking system | Provide mothers’ breast milk to the deprived infants.

Registration of Marriages 

  • TN — new rules making the registration of Marriages mandatory — expanded requirements — keep the parents in the loop.
  • Debate — Should Marriages be registered mandatorily?
  • New Rules in the TN have made it impossible to register a marriage under Hindu Marriage Act, without parents knowing about it.
  • Intent behind the rules — is NOT malafide, in fact they are to ensure the safety of young brides who are many a times exploited in the name of marriage and later on abandoned by the husbands.
    • To check the Child-Marriages
    • To provide legal backing to the marriage in case any problem arises in future
    • To prevent the dowry related instances
    • To prevent bigamy, gender violence
  • BUT — the problem —
    • All the adult have the Fundamental Right to make their own life choices under A.21 and A.19
    • Many a times, young adults want to marry going against the wishes of their parents — which is legally allowed — in such cases how to ensure registration of marriage?

Law commission on registration of marriage

  • Suggested to amend the Registration of Births and Deaths Act, 1969 — to make registration of marriages COMPULSORY — like births and deaths.
  • Marriages and divorce cases are under the List III — Concurrent List
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Sex-Ratio In India — Falling 906 →898 — NITI Aayog 

  • The average sex ratio in India has declined in India from 906 to 898 from 2012-14 to 2014-16.
    • Increase in sex ratio — Punjab, UP, Jharkhand, J&K, Bihar
    • Decrease — Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana, UK, Assam
  • NITI Aayog Report — Sex ratio at birth (SRB) nation-wide had dropped from 906 in 2012-14 to 900 in 2013-15.
  • 17/21 States saw a drop in the SRB — Gujarat performing the worst.
  • It isn’t shocking for India — as it has seen a consistent lowering of the SRB since 1970 — then SRB was 952
  • Natural Fact —
    • Male babies are biologically weaker than female — hence female babies have higher chances of survival
    • Men have historically seen higher mortality rates and participation in wars.
  • Sex-selected killing girl child — as on today, around 63 million girls are estimated to be ‘missing in India’ because of such actions.
  • Technology — a boon or bane? #MedicalEthics
    • Sex selection tech — amniocentesis and other cheaper and less invasive ultrasound → gave son preference
  • 1994 — PDT Act → punishes gender-selection with imprisonment and hefty fines
    • Failure!! — either cases are not registered or convection rate remains abysmally low.
  • Negative-Positive Approach Mixture —
    • Bad Cop — Legal consequences, monetary penalties, imprisonment etc
    • Good Cop — BBBP Yojana, Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana
      • State Government’s initiative
        • Girl Child Protection Scheme — AP
        • Aapki Beti, Hamari Beti — Haryana
        • Mukhya Mantri Kanya Suraksha Yojana — Bihar

Domestic Violence 

Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)

  1. Domestic Violence Act, 2005
  2. Patriarchy
  3. WHO → almost 33% of the women in intimate relation have experienced physical and/or sexual violence by their intimate partners.
  4. Boys who witness parental violence are more likely to use it in their adult relationships; girls are more likely to justify it.
  5. Strong Legal Reforms and interventions are the need of the hour.
  6. Criminal justice solution together with community-based resolution mechanism, with the help of SHGs are very important, especially in Indian Context.
  7. Various Experiments —
    • Nari Adalat
    • Women’s Resource Centres
    • Mahila Panchayats
  8. SHG need to help the women to resolve the cases of violence without getting much into the legal tangles.
  9. Women Empowerment — awareness and education
  10. Investment in specific training, and gender analysis processes. SHGs are seen mostly as administrative entities.
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Use of IT for the protection of women and significance of SDGs

  • BHAROSA — an initiative of Hyderabad City Police, is a state-of-the-art centre to support women and children who are victims of violence.
    • Under one roof, 24X7 services related to police, medical, legal, prosecution, psycho-therapeutic counselling and relief and rehabilitation services in completely private counselling rooms to maintain confidentiality and privacy.

HELICOPTER PARENTING

  • ‘Helicopter parenting’ — which describes an overcontrolling behaviour of parents — can negatively affect children’s ability to manage their emotions and deal with the challenging demands of growing up
  • Children need space to learn and grow on their own, without parents hovering over them.