- Rat-hole Mining is illegal and banned by NGT — cause of major losses of lives in mining | Meghalaya – 12 feared dead
- Punjab becomes the first State to have an all women Passport-Seva Kendra
- Rajasthan — First Government-run community milk banking system | Provide mothers’ breast milk to the deprived infants.
Registration of Marriages
- TN — new rules making the registration of Marriages mandatory — expanded requirements — keep the parents in the loop.
- Debate — Should Marriages be registered mandatorily?
- New Rules in the TN have made it impossible to register a marriage under Hindu Marriage Act, without parents knowing about it.
- Intent behind the rules — is NOT malafide, in fact they are to ensure the safety of young brides who are many a times exploited in the name of marriage and later on abandoned by the husbands.
- To check the Child-Marriages
- To provide legal backing to the marriage in case any problem arises in future
- To prevent the dowry related instances
- To prevent bigamy, gender violence
- BUT — the problem —
- All the adult have the Fundamental Right to make their own life choices under A.21 and A.19
- Many a times, young adults want to marry going against the wishes of their parents — which is legally allowed — in such cases how to ensure registration of marriage?
Law commission on registration of marriage
- Suggested to amend the Registration of Births and Deaths Act, 1969 — to make registration of marriages COMPULSORY — like births and deaths.
- Marriages and divorce cases are under the List III — Concurrent List
Sex-Ratio In India — Falling 906 →898 — NITI Aayog
- The average sex ratio in India has declined in India from 906 to 898 from 2012-14 to 2014-16.
- Increase in sex ratio — Punjab, UP, Jharkhand, J&K, Bihar
- Decrease — Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana, UK, Assam
- NITI Aayog Report — Sex ratio at birth (SRB) nation-wide had dropped from 906 in 2012-14 to 900 in 2013-15.
- 17/21 States saw a drop in the SRB — Gujarat performing the worst.
- It isn’t shocking for India — as it has seen a consistent lowering of the SRB since 1970 — then SRB was 952
- Natural Fact —
- Male babies are biologically weaker than female — hence female babies have higher chances of survival
- Men have historically seen higher mortality rates and participation in wars.
- Sex-selected killing girl child — as on today, around 63 million girls are estimated to be ‘missing in India’ because of such actions.
- Technology — a boon or bane? #MedicalEthics
- Sex selection tech — amniocentesis and other cheaper and less invasive ultrasound → gave son preference
- 1994 — PDT Act → punishes gender-selection with imprisonment and hefty fines
- Failure!! — either cases are not registered or convection rate remains abysmally low.
- Negative-Positive Approach Mixture —
- Bad Cop — Legal consequences, monetary penalties, imprisonment etc
- Good Cop — BBBP Yojana, Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana
- State Government’s initiative
- Girl Child Protection Scheme — AP
- Aapki Beti, Hamari Beti — Haryana
- Mukhya Mantri Kanya Suraksha Yojana — Bihar
- State Government’s initiative
Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)
- Domestic Violence Act, 2005
- WHO → almost 33% of the women in intimate relation have experienced physical and/or sexual violence by their intimate partners.
- Boys who witness parental violence are more likely to use it in their adult relationships; girls are more likely to justify it.
- Strong Legal Reforms and interventions are the need of the hour.
- Criminal justice solution together with community-based resolution mechanism, with the help of SHGs are very important, especially in Indian Context.
- Various Experiments —
- Nari Adalat
- Women’s Resource Centres
- Mahila Panchayats
- SHG need to help the women to resolve the cases of violence without getting much into the legal tangles.
- Women Empowerment — awareness and education
- Investment in specific training, and gender analysis processes. SHGs are seen mostly as administrative entities.
Use of IT for the protection of women and significance of SDGs
- BHAROSA — an initiative of Hyderabad City Police, is a state-of-the-art centre to support women and children who are victims of violence.
- Under one roof, 24X7 services related to police, medical, legal, prosecution, psycho-therapeutic counselling and relief and rehabilitation services in completely private counselling rooms to maintain confidentiality and privacy.
- ‘Helicopter parenting’ — which describes an overcontrolling behaviour of parents — can negatively affect children’s ability to manage their emotions and deal with the challenging demands of growing up
- Children need space to learn and grow on their own, without parents hovering over them.