SDG Gender Index, Domestic Violence, Financial Inclusion , Motherhood, Education, Senior Citizenship, Widowhood, Female Infanticide

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SDG Gender Index upsc

First SDG Gender Index

Case Studies and Introduction Templates 

  1. Template #1 — A woman is a full circle. Within her is the power to create, nurture and transform. Nari Shakti is a concept that has existed in Indian culture since the time immemorial. The mother goddess has been worshiped from ancient times in various forms. She has always been portrayed as the epitome of Shakti, able to accomplish that which man cannot. 
  2. Women has broken the glass barrier in almost every field, be it technology, space science, sports or the armed forces.
  3. Child Wasting = 1 in 5  — highest in the world (>50%)

Child Stunting = 38% (2 in 5) — highest in the world (>50%)

Child Undernourishment = 1 in 3 undernourished children of the world, live in India 

Child Underweight = 1 in 5 children are underweight 

  1. Hima Das #2— first Indian athlete to win a a gold medal at a global event — IAAF World U-20 Athletics Championship 2018 
    • Source of inspiration to all the girls in unfavourable circumstances
    • Hails from Assam — campaigns to end illegal migration in her village in Dhing, Assam.
  2. India is the world’s most dangerous and unsafe place for women to live — Poll by Thomson Reuters Foundation 
    • NCW rejects the findings — “sample size it too small”
  3. Bangalore — stereotyping of ‘modern woman’ in the school text-books — mindset? What are we teaching our children?
  4. ‘Santoshi’ and Khatna or Khafz #3— hailing from the Bodo tribe of Assam — failing to stop her baby girl from undergoing this obnoxious practice owing to the rudimentary customary obligations 
  5. Nadia Murad, 2018 Nobel Peace Price winner #4— hails from the Yazidis ethnicity of Iraq (a minority) — been abducted along with 3000 other Yazidi young women by Islamic State and held as ‘sex slaves’ — brutal atrocities done to them eroding the dignity and self respect — luckily she escaped the captivity and reunited with her surviving family. Generally an orthodox community where virginity is highly valued, but Murad going against all odds and overcoming her fear — opened up to the world about the atrocities and the brutality she has suffered — raised her voice and being a victim herself she commands legitimacy for her account — now she is recognised world over as a role model and source of inspiration for all the survivors of sexual abuse and rape violence. #Metoo #RealFeminist #WomenRights #endTerrorism 
  6. For conclusion — this can be used 

जहाँ रहेगा वहीं रौशनी लुटाएगा

किसी चराग़ का अपना मकाँ नहीं होता!

  • National Database on Sexual Abuse — starting from 2005 — better insight and surveillance
  • Sustainable Development Goal (SDG-5) — Gender Equality | Women Empowerment 
  • Children under 15 at serious risk for air pollution — WHO | 93% of the 1.8 billion children breath polluted air
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  1. Protection | Safety of women
    1. Sanitisation — ODF villages and Toilets @schools 
    2. Sexual Harassment @Workplace Act, 2013 
    3. The Nirbhaya Fund for women safety (only 20% used by states until 2018)
    4. 33% reservations in police force for women is being implemented 
  2. Female Infanticide 
    1. Falling Sex ratio of India —  from 906 to 898 from 2012-14 to 2014-16. — latest data from NITI Aayog
  3. Senior Citizenship — Old Age Problems
    1. Insurance Scheme relaxation 
    2. Vyay Vandana Yojana 
    3. Union Budget 2018 relaxations 
  4. Widowhood
    1. Feminisation of Widowhood 
    2. Mindset and social stigma attached 
    3. Government Initiatives | Vrindavan, Mathura
  5. Education — Literacy Rate — 65% (women) | 80% (men) | Overall 74% | Govt. Schemes
    1. Right to Education 
    2. UDAN scheme for admission to engineering colleges 
    3. No exam fees and other expenses in Govt Institutes | Fees relaxation in colleges 
    4. BBBP — tri-ministerial effort 

WCD, Health & Family Welfare, HRD 

  1. Health and Longevity — Women 69 yrs | Men 67 yrs
    1. 1951 — life expectancy was mere 31.7 years (big improvement)
    2. NHPS
    3. Regular checkups @9th of every month
    4. Ujjwala Yojana — free LPG connection (5 crore connection) 
  2. Motherhood 
    1. Pregnant women help through various schemes | more institutional delivery of babies
    2. Maternity Benefit Act — amended to 26 weeks leave | government incentivising the private sector to comply with this Act — budgetary provision of Rs. 400 crore incentives!
    3. PM Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY) — for unorganised sector women | Rs. 6000 incentive 
    4. MMR — 130/lakh (22% reduction) | MDG target met
    5. Abortion rights to women 
  3. Violence | Domestic and otherwise
    1. Domestic Violence Act, 2005

More than 55% of the women homicides were done by the person known to them, mostly family members. 

6/hr = women being killed by people they know

  1. A.21 Freedom — Marriage and otherwise
    1. Hadiya Judgement
    2. Triple Talaq
    3. Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006
  2. Women in Politics 
    1. A steady increase — 46% of our panchayat members are women (1.3 million+) | 1951 — only 45 women contested LS elections while in 2014 — 668 women did so
    2. 17th LS — Maximum number of women MPs elected ever.
    3. Cabinet – 22% | LS – 12% (1st LS — 4.5%) (less than global average of 23%) 
  3. Women Nutrition
    1. Anaemic ~ 50% adult women 
    2. MGNREGA and Banning of Liquor in Bihar — positive result with increasing disposable income 
    3. Mid-day meal scheme for girls 
    4. Ration Card — Women head 
  4. Women Employment | Entrepreneurship | Safety 
    1. Every 4th worker in India is a woman.
    2. Every 5th women is an entrepreneur — both in urban and rural India 
    3. 1/3rd of engineers are women | 3/4th of all health workers @PHC are women 
    4. PM Mudra Yojana — 75% of the loans have been given to women (~10 crore women beneficiaries) 
    5. Over 5 lakh women directors are now appointed in companies — highest ever 
    6. Standup India and Start-up India 
    7. NITI Aayog’s Women Entrepreneurship Platform (WEP)
    8. Skill India | PM Kaushal Vikas Yojana 
    9. Sexual Harassment @Workplace Act, 2013 
    10. The Nirbhaya Fund for women safety 
    11. 33% reservations in police force for women is being implemented 
    12. One-stop Centres, Women Helpline numbers, Online complaint systems etc 
  5. Financial Inclusion 
    1. PM Jan Dhan Yojana — 16.5 crore women accounts under Jan Dhan
    2. Women’s share in total saving accounts increased from 28% (2014) to 40% (2017) — demonetisation also!
    3. Gender Budgeting Scheme @centre and @states 
    4. DBT 
    5. Sukanya Samriddhi Scheme (small deposits with high interest; can be withdrawn by girl @18yrs)
    6. Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK) — micro-credit facilities | income generating activities Finance & Development Corporation 
    7. e-KYC and banking reforms — @doorstep services for the 110 most backward districts 
  6. Women and Agriculture 
    1. Feminisation of Agriculture (around 30%) (all the related problems, see Agriculture)
    2. Difficult to operate machinery — affecting the productivity 
    3. Loan interest rates subvention 
    4. Land in the name of women | inheritance right 
  7. Female Labour Force Participation 
    1. One of the world’s lowest ~ 23.4% (down from 26% | Target to up this number to 30% by 2025)
    2. With greater participation of women in the labour force, it predicts that India’s GDP would rise by 1.4 per cent.
    3. Sexual Abuse and counter measures — 2013 Act 
    4. Gender Sensitive jobs creation 
    5. Working women Hostels 
    6. National Creche Scheme — daycare to children from 6 months to 6 years 
    7. Social Stigma and Mindset, especially in the rural areas 
    8. India ranks 120/131 in women participation rate index
  8. Legal Rights | A.35A | Marital Rape | Adultery | Dowry | Inheritance
    1. Judicial Intervention — Vishakha Judgement 1997 
    2. Poor diversity @judiciary in terms of women judges | 42 years to get the first woman judge
    3. Adultery struck down by SC 
    4. Entry @sabarimala allowed by SC 
  9. Technology and Women 
    1. CPGRAMS — grievance redressal 
    2. Online FIR 
    3. One-Stop Centre 
    4. Smartphones | GPS | Panic Buttons 
    5. Interconnectivity 
  10. Vulnerable Women | Tribal Women
    1. Nai Roshni Scheme 
    2. There is a constant increment in sex ratio among tribal community 
    3. Literacy rate is pretty low compared to national avg (49% w.r.t 73%)
    4. MoTA — Eklavya Model Residential Schools — quality education in friendly atmosphere 
    5. Aadiwasi Mahila Shashaktikaran Yojana 
    6. FRA 2006 — provides full and unrestricted participation of women at all levels 
  11. Urban-Rural Divide
  12. Women in Sports 
    1. Commonwealth Games
    2. Asian Games 
    3. Saina Nehwal (#1) | Sania Mirza (#1 doubles) | PV Sindhu | Hima Das | Phagot Sisters | Mary Kom etc 
    4. Women Cricket — amazing performance by our team consecutively year after year | 2017 WCW India lost final
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  • Empowerment and protection are equally important and intrinsically linked — both are important for each other.
  • Create a enabling environment for women — No society can capitalise on its potential of development without including women as a factor in development. 
  • Ujjwala Scheme — prevention of trafficking, rescue, rehab, reintegration and repatriation for victims of sexual exploitation 

Mindsets — the biggest hurdle 

  • BBBP — successful initiative 
  • Gender Champions for students to build understanding of genders and gender sensitisation 

Crime and Reporting 

  • One-stop Centres — Psychological, Police, Medical, Legal assistance for women — SAKHI Portal 
  • Toll-free helpline numbers for Women and Children 
  • Reservation (33%) in Police force for women — making police more approachable for women and responsive to gender sensitive cases (Kathua).
  • POCSO e-Box — Sexual Abuse and Crime 

Legal Framework

  1. Trafficking of Persons Bill, 2018 — National, State and District level 
  2. Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006 — National, State and District level 
  3. Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace Act, 2013
  4. Training and informative programmes through media, newspaper, ads etc  — publicity and awareness 
  5. Triple Talaq Act, 2019
  6. Online portal — SHe-Box 
  7. Prevention of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005
  8. Dowry Prohibition Act,1961 
  9. The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013
  10. New Taxi Policy — improving women safety while using public taxis | disabling child-locking systems | driver’s information 

Funding Innovative Projects 

  • Nirbhaya Fund
  • Panic Buttons on all mobile phones 
  • GPS location tracking 
  • Street lighting, CCTV cameras, improved policing etc 
  • Prompt forensic capabilities 
  • RMK 

IT for Protection 

  • Cyber crime and cyber bullying — Central Reporting Mechanism 
  • Child Pornography, Rape imagery 
  • Need for increased awareness for public to deal with cyber crime in a better way. 
  • ‘KhoyaPaya’ portal —  protection of children — missing children and reuniting them. 
  • Information on child-friendly initiatives are even published inside the front cover of NCERT course books for maximum awareness among children.
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Rehabilitation of survivors 

  • Central Victim Compensation Scheme under Nirbhaya Fund | State Govt also contributes 
  • Acid attack victims — inclusion as a ‘disable’ category in Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016 — reservation and other benefits extended to them
  • Child Help Desks in major Railway stations 
  • Swadhar Greh — relief and rehab to destitute women and women in distress

Rural Women 

  • Mahila Shakti Kendra Scheme (MSKS) — promote community participation through involvement of Student Volunteers 
  • Services at the doorstep through student volunteers in 115 most backward districts