Chapter 12. International Relations Notes for UPSC Mains

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Russia

  • Summary cooperation – Nulear ( Kundakulam) ; Defence ( 70% of stock weapons, S-400, 5th Generation) ; Economic ( Oil pipeline, Investment Fund, Diamond, ONGC xploration ; but overall low currently ); Political ( China – Pressure point, UNSC, Druzhba – Dosti, Special Strategic Partnership , eroding though with Russia- Pak)
  • Defence
    • Special and Privileged Strategic Partnership” signed between 2 in 2010
    • Hardware
      • US has overtaken Russia as the biggest vendor
      • But, even now, Russian hardware 70% of the cumulative
        • Cooperation required for maintenance
      • Some notable joint development
        • Brahmos
        • Joint manufacture of Kamov-226 light helicopter in India
        • 5th generation aircraft
          • Aimed to replace Sukhoi -30 MKI
          • Uncertain
          • High costs – 5 billion $ , too few work to Indian, unreliable stealth, too little upgrade over Sukhoi
      • License to manufacture in India
        • Sukhoi 30 MKI
        • T- 90
      • Other significant purchases
        • INS vikramaditya
        • Mig
        • Leasing of Nuclear submarine – Chakra
      • Talks over S-400 air defence system
  • Political
    • Druzba Dosti
      • Vsion for next decade
      • Signed in 2014
    • BRICS, SCO
    • Russia supports India’s entry to UNSC
    • India did not agree upon Western sanctions to Russia, post Crimea crisis- saying India does not sympathise with any sanctions imposed other than the UNSC
    • Even though Russia and China are coming together, they are not Natural allies. Russia would also be apprehensive of an ambitious China
  • Terrorism
    • Terrorism, separatism – Kashmir, Chechnya
  • Nuclear
    • Kundakulam- 4 reactors
    • Plan to construct at least 12 more
    • Russia 1st country to engage with India after CLiNDA, 2010
  • Economic
    • Limited Track 2 and Track 3 diplomacy
    • India to ratify an FTA with Eurasian Economic Union – EEU
    • Before 1991, Russia used to be the largest exporting destinations of India
      • Then liberalisation and Disintegration of USSR
    • Trade- only at 10 billion $
    • Currently, Russian Investment in India is 3 billion $, and India’s 7 billion $ in Russia, much lesser than the 100 billion $ bilateral investment between Russia- China & Russia – US
    • INSTC
    • Green shoots
      • Will be setting up an India Investment Fund
        • Corpus of 2 billion $
        • 1 billion $ from Indian govt
        • Will be mostly used for investment in Indian investment projects
      • Cooperation in Diamond sector
        • Russia biggest source of raw diamond
        • India centre for Diamond cutting
  • Oil
    • Feasibilty study for Russia India pipeline
    • ONGC to buy stake in Russia’s 2nd largest gas field : Vankor
    • Bought Essar recently
  • Challenges
    • India now closer to US
      • US largest defence seller now
      • Similar diversification in millitary – Israel, France closer
    • Russia- Pak
      • Millitary exercise in Gilgit Baltistan
        • Sovereign have no permanent friends
        • Paradoxical considering Russia exercised Veto rights in suppport of India on Kashmir issue in 1950s
      • Russia- Pak defence framework signed in 2014
        • Russia supplied 4 Mi helicopters to Pak
      • Oil pipeline inside Pakistan
        • 2 LNG pipeline
        • 1 paralllel to TAPI
        • Other from Karachi to Punjab province
      • Allowed Russia to use Gwadar port
    • Relation almost G2G ; lack lusture B2B and P2P
    • Afghanistan – Quadrilateral
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Future

  • INSTC
  • Ashbagat
  • SCO, BRICS
  • FTA