Tourism Sector in India – Explained ( UPSC Notes)

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Tourism Sector in India – Explained ( UPSC Notes)

Government Initiatives 

  • HRIDAY
    • Heritage cities
    • 12 cities
    • 100% centrally funded
  • PRASAD
    • Religous cities
    • 12 again
    • Gaya in both
  • Swadesh Darshan
    • Theme based tourism circuits
    • 13 circuits identified/ developed
      • Ramayana circuit, Krishna, Buddhist, Himalayas Wildlife
  • Medical Tourism
    • Advantage Health Care India – International Summit
  • E-Visa
    • The duration has been extended to 60 days
  • Visa on Arrival , PIO card

Types of Tourism

  • Sight Seeing Tourism – India Gate
  • Eco Tourism ( also includes Wildlife tourism )
  • Business Tourism
  • Religious Tourism – Most prominent in India
  • Medical Tourism
  • Educational Tourism
  • Rural Tourism
  • Cultural Tourism
    • Slum Tourism 😛

Statistics

  • The number of foreign tourist arrivals in 2014 is 8 million (up from 5 mm in 2009-10),
  • 7 % to GDP
    • World average 10%
  • 10%
    • employment.
    • Finally, compared to other modern sectors, a higher proportion of tourism benefits (jobs, petty trade opportunities) accrue to women. Internationally 70% jobs in tourism to women
  • Foreign exchange earning-
    • 20 billion dollars
    • 2nd Largest
  • WEF Tourism Competitiveness Index
    • India moves up 12 places at 40th
    • Largest leap by any country in top 50
    • But footfalls still short of countries like France
      • Reasons – Schengen, Temperature, Infra, Safety

Strategy

  • Government would need to adopt a ‘pro-poor tourism’ approach aimed at increasing the net benefits that flow to the poor from tourism. It includes expansion of local employment through commitment to creation of local jobs and training of locals for employment; expansion of business opportunities for small and micro businesses 
  • The implementation of these strategies will involve developing formal and informal links between all stakeholders and coordination across all levels of Government.
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Issues

  • Infrastructure – Roads, Hotels, Parks
  • Human Resources – Guides, Female Guides
  • Security – Scarlet Keening
  • Environment – Manali, Climate Change
  • Extremism – Darjeeling
  • Lack of Awareness – Shortage of ICT connectivity , Inadequate focus on Spiti Valley in Himachal or Tribal tourism of Jharkahand
  • In addition, in Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index, India performs badly on
    • Health and Hygiene
    • IT connectivity
    • Prioritisation of Tourism

STEPS REQUIRED

  • Single national level smart cards for all tolls
  • Extension of E- Tourist window to 150 days instead of 60 currently ( Eco Survey )
  • National Cruise Strategy
  • Sustainable Tourism
  • Taking Locals into cohgnisance
  • Hotels, Roads
  • Internet and Awareness
  • Guides
  • And all the steps for above issues

Medical Tourism

  • To obtain healthcare
  • In particular of 2 kinds
    • Complex specialised surgeries like join replacement, cardiac, dental
      • From Afghanistan, Ban in particular
      • But, also from Advanced west like US, UK due to cheap cost
    • Ayurveda tourism in Kerala
  • Driven mainly by private sector
  • 3 billion $
  • 2 lakh people every year

E-tourist VISA

  • Open to 150 countries now
  • Is Tourist Visa on Arrival Facility (TVoA) enabled by Electronic Authorisation
  • At 16 Indian airports
  • Progress- 3.5 lakh last year, largest from UK, then USA
  • Sustainable Tourism –
    • Bottomline – Environment , People, Tourists
    • Environment
      • Manali – NGT Ban
      • Floods – Uttarakhand
      • Taj Mahal – Pollution
    • People
      • Kasaul – Drug Tourism
      • Sex Tourism
      • Revenue should stay with the tourists
    • Tourists
      • Basic Infra
      • Points on Skill, Awareness,
    • Scheme
      • Ministry of Tousim – Sustainable tourism Criteria of India

National Tourism Policy (Draft), 2011

Features 

  • By 2017, to host 1% of global tourists (current 0.7%). This would require additional 400k hotel rooms and would create 25 mm jobs.    
  • To target 12 per cent annual growth in this sector in the Twelfth Five Year Plan.  
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Cruise Shipping Policy, 2008    

Potential of Cruise Shipping 

  • Cruise Shipping refers to leisurely passenger shipping. It beneficial not only in tourism terms but also in promoting the handicrafts industry.  

 Features

  • It provides for better fiscal regime, better port and connectivity facilities and liberal immigration regime.  
  • A Steering Committee formed in 2010 envisaged developing 5 ports of Goa, Mumbai, Cochin, Chennai and Mangalore and including inland river cruising as LTC for government employees.  

 Tourism Initiatives for North East

  • Incentives are given to Central Government Employees to travel to NE.
  • 10% of Planned Tourism Expenditure reserved for NE.
  •  NE fairs and exhibitions will get 100% central finance assistance.